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D

Third Reich: Tunnel constructioning in the Third Reich

The Underground Reich. The Secret Worlds of the Nazis

[Persecution of the Jews and Holocaust with mass death in NS tunnel systems and bunker systems]

Oberammergau: Sight through the hole.   Neckarzimmern: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe walking
                on the tunnel road  Walpersberg near Kahla 16: Air foto of 1945 of the
                freight elevator Kohnstein 39, Raketenmotor in Wasserlache   Abschussrampenbunker Vizernes 09, Kuppel
                  Totalansicht   Ebensee13, Halle 01   Eulengebirge 23, Jürgen Müller und Jacek Duszczak
                fahren in einem Schlauchboot in einem überfluteten Gang
                04   Stuttgart-Killesberg 07, Gang 05 mit Wegweisern   Obersalzberg-Berghof01, Luftaufnahme von 1940 ca.

Translation of the textbook by Michael Palomino (2007). The number of the victims is not fixed until today.

http://www.geschichteinchronologie.ch/judentum-aktenlage/hol/bunkerbau-SpiegelTV2003_the-underground-reich-ENGL.htm

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from: Spiegel TV history: Film "Das unterirdische Reich" from Michael Kloft.

Authors: Michael Kloft, Michael Foedrowitz. Cooperation: Lars. T. Andersen, Frank Gensthaler; speaker: Peter Buchholz, Kay Siering, Robert Wortmann; sound mixing: Jens Burfeind; u.a. ; Spiegel TV 2003 (Information about staff members gives the press office of Spiegel TV, tel. 0049-(0)40-30 10 80); delivery of the film on DVD (ISBN no.: 3-937163-35-2) at Polarfilm (tel. 0049-(0)2542-95 13 13), or in the internet http://www.polarfilm.de.



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Content: Chapters

1. Introduction
2. Underground airplane production plant in Oberammergau (Bavaria): Pseudonym "Neustadt" ("New Town") - caretaker Heinz Rabe
3. The dimension of the tunnel constructioning: 340 building sites, 400 pseudonyms, 800 projects

4. Underground jet fighter production plant at Neckarzimmern on the Neckar
5. The dimensions of the tunnel constructioning: 80 % of the warfare industry shall be brought into bunkers
6. Underground fuel deposits near Bremen: working until today

7. The dimensions of the tunnel constructioning: "High pressure" - forced labor in Kahla: "Lachs" ("Salmon")
8. Underground airplane production plant: Walpersberg near Kahla, pseudonym "Lachs" ("Salmon")
9. Dimensions of the tunnel constructioning: 100,000s detainees brought back to the Reich up to the last day

10. Underground airplane production plant: Muehldorf on the Inn: approx. 2,000 deaths
11. Dimensions of the tunnel constructioning: Last transport into CCs in April / May 1945, e.g. to Dachau
12. Underground tunnel system in the dogger work near Hersbruck for BMW motor production, pseudonym: "Esche 1" ("Ash Tree 1") - approx. 3,500 deaths

13. Underground rocket production after the bombing of Peenemünde: for V2 (A4): Nordhausen: Kohnstein: 10,000s of deaths
14. Underground rocket silos (rocket launching pads) for V2 in Watten
15. Underground rocket silos (rocket launching pads) for V2 in Viserne: "La coupole" - British "Tallboy" bombs

16. Bunker constructioning: Underground rocket silos for V3 at Mimoyecques
17. Falkenhagen near Berlin: Chemical plant with the aim of Sarin production
18. Underground rocket production plant for intercontinental rocket A9: Ebensee near Salzburg, pseudonym: "Zement" ("Cement")

19. The concrete encased and then blasted Wolfsschanze - a table is saving Hitler's life
20. Bunker constructioning in the Eulengebirge (Owl Mountains) for a new leader's headquarter: Example: Gluszyca: "Säuferhöhen" ("heights of drunks")
21. Bunker constructioning in the Eulengebirge (Owl Mountains) for a new leader's headquarter: Example: Wolfsberg (Wolf Mountain)

22. Owl Mountains: Suspicion that there are more tunnel systems
23. Bunker constructioning in the Eulengebirge (Owl Mountains) for a new leader's headquarter: Example: Castle "Fuerstenstein" ("Stone of Prince")
24. The German population does not know anything about the tunnel systems - is living in ruins itself

25. "Axes of coordinates" and motorway tunnel in Berlin - use of the bunker as a fabrication hall
26. Bunker town under Dortmund
27. Kaiseroda / Merkers (Thuringia): Loot was placed in the bunker systems - the secret evacuation by the allies

28. Bunker plant Stuttgart: Killesberg

29. Bunker system at Obersalzberg: "Berghof": almost 6 km bunker systems completed
29.1. Bunker at Obersalzberg: The Bormann family
29.2. Bunker at Obersalzberg: Bunker for Eva Braun
29.3. Bunker at Obersalzberg: Preparation for Hitler's last fight
29.4. Bunker at Obersalzberg: Eva Braun's rooms


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1.

Introduction

Das unterirdische Reich (The Underground
                          Reich), start of the film
Das unterirdische Reich (The Underground Reich),
start of the film
Das unterirdische Reich (The
                            Underground Reich), start of the film with
                            the text "Spiegel special"
Das unterirdische Reich (The Underground Reich), start of the film with the text "Spiegel special"

Speaker:

It was one of the most gigantic engineering projects of human history: Bomb safe production plants for the Third Reich.
[Foto: Rocket remnants in a flooded tunnel].

Introduction: Tunnel system
Introduction: Tunnel system
Introduction: Remnant of a V2 rocket at
                            Kohnstein in a flooded tunnel.
Introduction: Remnant of a V2 rocket at Kohnstein in a flooded tunnel.

So called "wonder weapons" should bring death and destruction over the enemies, huge underground factories should deliver supplies for the Wehrmacht.

Introduction: Installation of a V2
                              rocket
Introduction: Installation of a V2 rocket
Introduction: Tunnel system at
                            Oberammergau with electric car.
Introduction: Tunnel system at Oberammergau with electric car.

Armament minister Speer had begun the monstrous project for the "Fuehrer".

[Foto: Armament minister Speer with a task force]
Introduction: Hitler with entourage
Introduction: Hitler with entourage
The remnants of the mammoth project can be seen only by few people today.

[Foto: Tunnel caretaker in a tunnel].
Introduction: Tunnel caretaker Heinz
                            Rabe
Introduction: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe

100s of millions of Reichsmarks were expended to undercut whole mountains. Production plants for strategic armaments should be installed in long tunnel systems for miles.

[Fotos: Tunnel caretaker in a tunnel system with a water basin].

Introduction: Basin in the tunnel
                            system
Introduction: Basin in the tunnel system
Basin in the tunnel system with tunnel
                            caretaker Heinz Rabe
Basin in the tunnel system with tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe

100,000s of slave workers had to compass the work for the Nazis. How many lost their lives is not sure. Up to the last day of the war there was feverish work in the tunnels [Fotos: Tunnel workers with pit and shovel moving some stones in a tunnel].

Introduction: Pickax on rubble 01
Introduction: Pickax on rubble 01
Introduction: Pickax on rubble 02
Introduction: Pickax on rubble 02
Introduction: Forced laborer moving the
                            rubble 01
Introduction: Forced laborer moving the rubble 01
Introduction: Forced laborer moving the
                            rubble 02
Introduction: Forced laborer moving the rubble 02

But how near were the Nazis at the triumph of the crazy project? What had been when the armament production underground would have performed on full speed? Had Hitler's war of extermination required some millions more death victims? [Fotos: tunnels, armament production, e.g. cartridges, concrete-lined hall].

Introduction: Encasing works 01
Introduction: Encasing works 01
Introduction: Encasing works 02
Introduction: Encasing works 02
Introduction: Lorry in a tunnel 01
Introduction: Lorry in a tunnel 01
Introduction: Lorry in a tunnel 02
Introduction: Lorry in a tunnel 02
Introduction: Tunnel
Introduction: Tunnel
Introduction: Weapon production in a
                            tunnel 01
Introduction: Weapon production in a tunnel 01
Introduction: Weapon production in a
                            tunnel 02, cartridges
Introduction: Weapon production in a tunnel 02, cartridges
Introduction: Weapon production in a
                            tunnel 03, cartridges zoom
Introduction: Weapon production in a tunnel 03, cartridges zoom

Text flash of the title of the film:
"The Underground Reich. The Secret Worlds of the Nazis. A Film by Michael Kloft."

(orig.:
"Das unterirdische Reich - Die geheimen Welten der Nazis. Ein Film von Michael Kloft.")

Title of the film: "The
                            Underground Reich. The Secret Worlds of the
                            Nazis" (orig.: Das unterirdische Reich.
                            Die geheimen Welten der Nazis")
Title of the film: "The Underground Reich. The Secret Worlds of the Nazis" (orig.: Das unterirdische Reich. Die geheimen Welten der Nazis")
"A film by Michael Kloft"
                            (orig.: "Ein Film von Michael
                            Kloft")
"A film by Michael Kloft" (orig.: "Ein Film von Michael Kloft")

(It seems strange that tunnel system historian Michael Foedrowitz is not indicated here).


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2.
Underground airplane production plant in Oberammergau (Bavaria): Pseudonym "Neustadt" ("New Town") - caretaker Heinz Rabe

Speaker:
A slope near the Bavarian community Oberammergau.

[Foto: Slope]

Hidden from the view of curious people there is a mysterious tunnel system built by the Nazis [and the detainees]. The only entrance is closed by a concrete plombage. Only a mining expert of the state can open it because in a rhythm of some years he has to make an inspection.

[Foto: Opening a concrete wall at the entrance with tophat drillings in a circle order so at the end there is falling out a big peace of concrete giving free a big hole].


A slope near Oberammergau

A slope near Oberammergau
The tunnel entrance in Oberammergau is
                            drilled out 01
The tunnel entrance in Oberammergau is drilled out 01
The tunnel entrance in Oberammergau is
                            drilled out 02
The tunnel entrance in Oberammergau is drilled out 02
The tunnel entrance in Oberammergau is
                            drilled out 03
The tunnel entrance in Oberammergau is drilled out 03
Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe, profile
Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe, profile
The drill chuck
The drill chuck
A crowbar is put into the drilled
                            holes.
A crowbar is put into the drilled holes.
The drilled hole is pushed open 01
The drilled hole is pushed open 01
The drilled hole is pushed open 02
The drilled hole is pushed open 02
The drilled hole is pushed open 03
The drilled hole is pushed open 03
The drilled hole is pushed open 04
The drilled hole is pushed open 04
Oberammergau: Sight through the hole.
Oberammergau: Sight through the hole.

For about 20 underground tunnel systems in South and East Germany Heinz Rabe has the responsibility. He has to control if the safety of the 60 years old systems is guaranteed yet.

[Foto: Heinz Rabe entering the tunnel]

Oberammergau: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe in
                    the tunnel
Oberammergau: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe in the tunnel


After the end of the war the Americans had searched all, also in Oberammergau.

[Better: They stole all and have used it for their own armament development].

Since then the tunnels are empty. The wainscots are rotten. At any moment stones can fall from the ceilings.

Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe in the
                            tunnel, seen from the back
Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe in the tunnel, seen from the back
Oberammergau: Tunnel, rotting wooden
                          casing
Oberammergau: Tunnel, rotting wooden casing
Oberammergau: Tunnel caretaker Heinz
                            Rabe seen from the back
Oberammergau: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe seen from the back

Heinz Rabe, tunnel caretaker in S and E Germany:
Oberammergau: Tunnel caretaker and mining
                    expert Heinz Rabe is telling.
Oberammergau: Tunnel caretaker and mining expert Heinz Rabe is telling.

<During the war the plant's owner was Messerschmitt AG. It was a bomb safe production and development plant for aircraft construction. According to the plans there were 3 or 4 entrances to the plant. We just opened one of them, the other ones had been shot by blasts at the end of the war. And there are two parallel tunnels of a length of about 80, 90 m which are connected by crossways which then served the bomb save production plant."
[Foto: Former production hall in the mountain; tunnel in bare brickwork].

Oberammergau: Tunnel caretaker
                            Heinz-Rabe in the tunnel
Oberammergau: Tunnel caretaker Heinz-Rabe in the tunnel
Oberammergau: Tunnel caretaker
                            Heinz-Rabe in the tunnel
Oberammergau: Tunnel caretaker Heinz-Rabe in the tunnel


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3.

The dimension of the tunnel constructioning: 340 building sites, 400 pseudonyms, 800 projects

Speaker:

340 building sites were known to the allies already before the end of the war. In the Third Reich over 400 plants had got pseudonyms already. The plans of armament department tell us of about 800.

Nazi leadership had hesitated for a long time beginning with the underground factories.
Meeting of Nazi leadership 01
Meeting of Nazi leadership 01
[Supplement:

This hesitating habit was because in 1942 and 1943 the half of the world believed yet that the NS troops would win rapidly against the Red Army because one did not want to quit the idea of the weak Red Army which lost against Finland;
In: Valentin Falin: Second Front]

Meeting of Nazi leadership 02
Meeting of Nazi leadership 02
Only in summer 1943 - when the Allied bomber squadrons were more and more successful against Germany Hitler's armament - minister Albert Speer gave the order to put the weapon production underground systematically.
Meeting of Nazi leadership 03
Meeting of Nazi leadership 03
First industry was against this change although the horrendous costs were taken over by the Reich. The plans seemed to be conceived too poorly, and the performance seemed to be too chaotic.
Nazi leadership walking to the
                          conference
Nazi leadership walking to the conference

The conference making the Hitler salute
                          before the Nazi leadership
The conference making the Hitler salute before the Nazi leadership
Conference of Hitler's leadership: The
                          speaker comes
Conference of Hitler's leadership: The speaker comes
The speaker of the Nazi leadership is
                          taking a seat.
The speaker of the Nazi leadership is taking a seat.


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4.
Underground jet fighter production plant at Neckarzimmern on the Neckar


Speaker:

First the Nazis had enlarged mines which already existed.

[Foto: Slope at the Neckar].
Neckarzimmern: Slope at the Neckar
Neckarzimmern: Slope at the Neckar
At the board of the Neckar one of the first projects was performed, pseudonym "Neustadt" ("New Town"). 120 m deep under the vineyard there is hidden the a huge underground tunnel system today.
Neckarzimmern: Slope at the Neckar, zoom
Neckarzimmern: Slope at the Neckar, zoom
Already before 150 years there was plaster winning there. During First World War there was an explosive production plant installed in the tunnels. Since 1937 the tunnels were an ammunition deposit.

[Foto: Caretaker in the tunnels].
Neckarzimmern: Tunnel
Neckarzimmern: Tunnel
It's not clear If the latrines are from workers from Second World War because the tunnel system belongs to the rare ones which is in use until now.

[Foto: 2 latrines in a tunnel in bare brickwork].
Neckarzimmern: Tunnel caretaker Heinz
                            Rabe in the tunnel from the back
Neckarzimmern: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe in the tunnel from the back

The iron door is leading into an underground town [Fotos: Concrete-lined, white painted tunnels with tarred lanes].

Neckarzimmern: Tunnel caretaker Heinz
                            Rabe in the tunnel from the back in front of
                            a door
Neckarzimmern: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe in the tunnel from the back in front of a door
Neckarzimmern: Tunnel caretaker Heinz
                            Rabe stepping through the door
Neckarzimmern: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe stepping through the door
Neckarzimmern:Tunnel caretaker Heinz
                            Rabe walking on a tunnel road
Neckarzimmern:Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe walking on a tunnel road

Through the whole mountain there is a trafficable road net of 34 km.
Neckarzimmern: Tunnel caretaker Heinz
                            Rabe walking on the tunnel road
Neckarzimmern: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe walking on the tunnel road
On 130,000 m2 there should have been created a gigantic weaponry,
Neckarzimmern: Tunnel caretaker Heinz
                            Rabe and a military vehicle with an Y
                            number
Neckarzimmern: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe and a military vehicle with an Y number

and partly it was put into operation since spring 1944.
Neckarzimmern: Sight on a tunnel
                            crossing
Neckarzimmern: Sight on a tunnel crossing
Today the plant has a surface of 170,000 m2.

[Foto: Parked bicycles in an illuminated tunnel].
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Neckarzimmern: Sight into tunnel no. 9,
                            parked bicycles
Neckarzimmern: Sight into tunnel no. 9, parked bicycles

Since decades units of Bundeswehr have their bases at Neckarzimmern.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Neckarzimmern: Electric transport
                            vehicle in the tunnel
Neckarzimmern: Electric transport vehicle in the tunnel
Neckarzimmern: The tunnel door leads to
                            workrooms of the Bundeswehr
Neckarzimmern: The tunnel door leads to workrooms of the Bundeswehr

Holger Glatz, Oberammergau: [talking about the Situation 1939-1943, and since 1957]:

Neckarzimmern: Lieutenant colonel Holger Glatz
                    is telling
Neckarzimmern: Lieutenant colonel Holger Glatz is telling

<During Second World War there were installed two production plants here: One was for ammunition packaging things of an ammunition factory not far from here, and second was the ball bearing production from a factory which had been at Schweinfurt first. Since 1957 the tunnel system was enlarged within the situation of the Cold War. In case of a possible confrontation such constructions were wanted which were e.g. also safe against atomic bombs, for deposits of parts of high value and for repair works, also under heavy conditions of a performed war.>

Speaker [situation today (2003)]:

720 humans are working here [today (2003)] underground and provide for supply of weapons and spare parts.
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 01,
                          workroom 01
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 01, workroom 01
Defense department is charging the maintenance for 1.6 mio. Euro per year.
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 02,
                          workroom 02
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 02, workroom 02
[Fotos: workrooms without windows]. Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 03,
                            workroom 03
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 03, workroom 03
Holger Glatz [situation today (2003 apr.)]:

<Today here is the deposit for theft-prone material, above all material worth being protected in this underground plant, for deposit and being reinstalled.
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 04,
                          relay station
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 04, relay station
And the big advantage - when I may add this - is that we have special climate conditions here. The air temperature is constant, the humidity is constant, and by this we have only little expense for conservation or packages.
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 05,
                          measuring instrument
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 05, measuring instrument
Add to this this plant can be protected easily with some few entrances and fresh air tunnels. So, also the expense for protecting for this big plant is little compared to others.>

[Foto: Workshops without windows, stockrooms without windows].
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 06,
                          inscription "Zutritt verboten"
                          ("access prohibited")
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 06, inscription "Zutritt verboten" ("access prohibited")
Speaker:

Where today is a deposit for the peace missions in Kosovo and Afghanistan there should have been armament production 60 years ago.
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 07,
                          military equipment 01
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 07, military equipment 01
The expansion should cost at least 50 mio. Reichsmark. Almost half of it was ready at the end of the war.
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 08,
                          military equipment 02
Neckarzimmern: Bundeswehr in tunnel 08, military equipment 02



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5.
The dimensions of the tunnel constructioning: 80% of the warfare industry shall be brought into the bunkers


Speaker:
Above all the ball bearing factories at Schweinfurt were the target of the allied bomber squadrons. Despite of heavy losses the Americans could raze the factories to the ground. But the aim to stop the supply for Hitler's Wehrmacht was not achieved first. [Fotos: Bombings].

Allied air attack against Schweinfurt
                            01, bombers
Allied air attack against Schweinfurt 01, bombers
Allied air attack against Schweinfurt
                            02, bombers let fall bombs
Allied air attack against Schweinfurt 02, bombers let fall bombs
Allied air attack against Schweinfurt
                            03, the bombs are falling
Allied air attack against Schweinfurt 03, the bombs are falling
Allied air attack against Schweinfurt
                            04, the bombs are exploding
Allied air attack against Schweinfurt 04, the bombs are exploding

Up to 80 percent of the strategic key industries should be brought underground. Aside the ball bearing factories these were the production plants for airplane motors, fuel deposits as well, and the secret rocket program of the SS. Only about 20% was put into operation.

[Fotos: damaged house front, burnt motor station, burnt fuel deposit station, burnt tank station].

Bombed armament industry 01: The hall
                            is damaged and under reconstruction
Bombed armament industry 01: The hall is damaged and under reconstruction
Bombed armament industry 02: Burnt
                            motor station
Bombed armament industry 02: Burnt motor station
Bombed armament industry 03: Burnt fuel
                            station
Bombed armament industry 03: Burnt fuel station
Bombed armament industry 04: Burnt tank
                            station
Bombed armament industry 04: Burnt tank station


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6.
Underground fuel deposits near Bremen: working until today

Speaker:
Facilities which were considered as "decisive for the outcome of the war" had an especially good camouflage to withdraw them from the views of the allied reconnaissance planes. So, already in the mids of the 1930s the fuel deposits of Nazi Germany were brought underground into the bunkers. Near Bremen there is such a deposit which is working also today, over 60 years later.

Fuel deposit Bremen 01: Grove at the
                            entrance
Fuel deposit Bremen 01: Grove at the entrance
Fuel deposit Bremen 02: Entrance, upper
                            part
Fuel deposit Bremen 02: Entrance, upper part
Fuel deposit Bremen 03: Entrance with
                            lane
Fuel deposit Bremen 03: Entrance with lane
Fuel deposit Bremen 04: Corridor 01
Fuel deposit Bremen 04: Corridor 01
Fuel deposit Bremen 05: Corridor 02
Fuel deposit Bremen 05: Corridor 02
Fuel deposit Bremen 06: Station
                            attendant
Fuel deposit Bremen 06: Station attendant

The state's owned facilities have to be serviced periodically. Only trained staff is allowed to go down into the tanks. The huge tanks can contain 4,000 m3 fuel and are built of 12 mm thick ship steel, covered by 1 m thick concrete. All in all there are 80 of them.

Fuel deposit of Bremen 07: Descent 01
Fuel deposit of Bremen 07: Descent 01
Fuel deposit of Bremen 08: Descent 02
Fuel deposit of Bremen 08: Descent 02
Fuel deposit of Bremen 09: Tank, total
                            perspective
Fuel deposit of Bremen 09: Tank, total perspective


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7.

The dimensions of the tunnel constructioning: "High pressure" - forced labor in Kahla: "Lachs"

Speaker: In all parts of the Third Reich the construction works underground were pushed on by high pressure.

NS propaganda film 1944:
"The aim of the enemies to smash the German armament by massive bombing has failed. Strategic production plants were put underground in time and with Teutonic thoroughness."

[In the propaganda film are missing
-- the scaled-down detainees with their illnesses and the deads
-- the torture by the SS guards
-- the blasting operations at the rocket].

Forced laborers at Kahla 01: Entry of a
                            tunnel portal
Forced laborers at Kahla 01: Entry of a tunnel portal
Forced laborers at Kahla 02: The slaves
                            going up a stone stairs.
Forced laborers at Kahla 02: The slaves going up a stone stairs.
Forced laborers at Kahla 03: The slaves
                          put their bags down.
Forced laborers at Kahla 03: The slaves put their bags down.
Forced laborers at Kahla 04: Pickax on
                            rubble
Forced laborers at Kahla 04: Pickax on rubble
Forced laborers at Kahla 05: The stone
                            is falling
Forced laborers at Kahla 05: The stone is falling
Forced laborers at Kahla 06: Shoveling
                            work, the stones are removed
Forced laborers at Kahla 06: Shoveling work, the stones are removed
Forced laborers at Kahla 07: Measuring
Forced laborers at Kahla 07: Measuring
Forced laborers at Kahla 08: Slaves
                            bearing wood
Forced laborers at Kahla 08: Slaves bearing wood
Forced laborers at Kahla 09: Concrete
                            mixer
Forced laborers at Kahla 09: Concrete mixer
Forced laborers at Kahla 10: Casing
                            works on a wooden structure
Forced laborers at Kahla 10: Casing works on a wooden structure

Speaker:

The propaganda film is called "Weapons - hands - hearts" [orig. German: "Waffen - Hände - Herzen"]. This is one of the rare film documents showing some of the underground building sites. The film was made in Kahla in Thuringia where should be installed an airplane production plant. The pseudonym was: "Lachs" ("Salmon").
Lorry at Kahla in a tunnel
Lorry at Kahla in a tunnel
Walpersberg near Kahla 01, tunnel
Walpersberg near Kahla 01, tunnel


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8.
Underground airplane production plant: Walpersberg near Kahla, pseudonym "Lachs" ("Salmon")


Above all foreign forced laborers had to carry out the filthy job under inhuman circumstances.

Paul Baert, former Belgian detainee (translation):
Walpersberg near Kahla 02, Paul Baert is telling
                  giving his testimony
Walpersberg near Kahla 02, Paul Baert is telling giving his testimony

<The first day we were classified. A German officer made a speech and told us: "You will work until you will fall down to death." In the tunnels 3 persons had to drill holes with a drilling machine, other 3 were shoveling, and one brought the filled wagon out.

From a structure there were drilled holes of 2 1/2 to 3 m of depth into the ceiling and filled with dynamite. Then all was exploding and at once after this we had to go on working and shoveling. We could not see us because of the dust and the gases. But there was no mercy, we had to go on.>

Speaker:

After 12 hours in the mountain 10.000 slave workers got  a scanty meal. In the beginning of February 1945 even 14 and 16 year old pupils were drafted to help at the building site.

[Fotos: Tunnel labyrinth in bare brickwork].
Walpersberg near Kahla 03, tunnel
Walpersberg near Kahla 03, tunnel
Walpersberg near Kahla 04, tunnel
Walpersberg near Kahla 04, tunnel

Herbert Roemer, former detainee in Walpersberg near Kahla:
Walpersberg near Kahla 05, Herbert Roemer is
                  telling giving his testimony
Walpersberg near Kahla 05, Herbert Roemer is telling giving his testimony

<For sure the technical concept was rationally elaborated, and with respect to the air dominance of the allies over Germany it was substantial. Of course the methods were of a sheer madness. The machinery which was kept always under fire always could be foreseen that it was coming to the brink, that was the end of the Third Reich. And this was happening under inhumanities which were performed, one cannot understand this any more as a normal thinking human being with a normal feeling.> [Fotos: tunnel labyrinth in bare brickwork]

NS propaganda film 1944:
"The German leadership announced: The German sky has to be liberated." [Fotos: Jet fighter]

Walpersberg near Kahla 06: Jet fighter
                            ME262, sight from the side
Walpersberg near Kahla 06: Jet fighter ME262, sight from the side
Walpersberg near Kahla 07: Jet fighter
                            ME262, front view
Walpersberg near Kahla 07: Jet fighter ME262, front view

Our inventors and constructors, they will through airplanes against the mass of enemy terror bombers which will unconditionally win in the defense and in the attack." [Foto: Engine]

Walpersberg near Kahla 08: Jet fighter
                            ME262 is composed
Walpersberg near Kahla 08: Jet fighter ME262 is composed
Walpersberg near Kahla 09: Jet fighter
                            ME262, engine
Walpersberg near Kahla 09: Jet fighter ME262, engine
Walpersberg near Kahla 10: Jet fighter
                            ME262 with mechanic
Walpersberg near Kahla 10: Jet fighter ME262 with mechanic

[Supplement: Hitler ordered that this jet fighter was reconstructed into a jet bomber. This costed 1 1/2 years development time.
In: Nicolaus von Below:
Als Hitlers Adjutant [As Hitler's Adjutant] 1937-1945, Mainz 1980, S./p.355

And: This jet fighter was developed in 1939 allready but Hitler did not want it in his wars indicating that the high acceleration of the jet fighter would harm the brain of the pilotes.
In: Nicolaus von Below: Als Hitlers Adjutant 1937-1945; Hase & Koehler-Verlag, Mainz 1980; Pour le Mérite - Verlag für Militärgeschichte, Postfach 52, D-24236 Selent, 1999.

Well, Hitler had his brain damage (Parkinson) also without having performed a flight in the jet fighter...]

Speaker:
One of the most secret new developments of the air force was built in Kahla: the jet fighter [jet bomber] Me-262. The first plane was ready to start in mid of February 1945. [Foto: Airfield with jet fighters]

Walpersberg near Kahla 11: Jet fighter
                            ME262 airfield
Walpersberg near Kahla 11: Jet fighter ME262 airfield
Walpersberg near Kahla 12: Jet fighter
                            ME262 is rolling by
Walpersberg near Kahla 12: Jet fighter ME262 is rolling by
Walpersberg near Kahla 13: Entrance
                            into the jet fighter ME262
Walpersberg near Kahla 13: Entrance into the jet fighter ME262

Paul Baert, Belgian detainee at Walpersberg near Kahla (translation):
Walpersberg near Kahla 14: Paul Baert telling,
                  testimony
Walpersberg near Kahla 14: Paul Baert telling, testimony

<The airplane was looking like a fish. It was constructed very modern, very slim and as it seemed it was very fast. We had heard rumours that every month should be constructed 1,200 jet fighters. We just could not believe this. But it was performed under our eyes. We were very afraid of it because it was clear for us: When the war was going on we would not survive.>

Speaker:

In 1945 the US air force is taking these air fotos of Kahla. There can be seen explicitly the bunkered entrances

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Walpersberg near Kahla 15: Air foto of
                            1945 of the bunkered entrances.
Walpersberg near Kahla 15: Air foto of 1945 of the bunkered entrances.
and a freight elevator on the slope of the mountain.

[Foto: Back of the mountain with freight elevator].
Walpersberg near Kahla 16: Air foto of
                            1945 of the freight elevator
Walpersberg near Kahla 16: Air foto of 1945 of the freight elevator
In the inner of the mountain there was projected a length of the tunnel systems of 30 km. At the end of the war almost half of it was blasted into the hill.

[Foto: Tunnel caretaker marching in a tunnel].
Walpersberg near Kahla 17: Tunnel
                            caretaker Heinz Rabe
Walpersberg near Kahla 17: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe

The not completed tunnels were leading to the real core of the plant: 4 huge underground halls where should be performed the work on 27,000 m2.

Heinz Rabe, Tunnel caretaker in S and E Germany:

<We are here in one of the big halls which were foreseen for the final production of the jet airplanes, the Me-262. Here the airplane could be composed completely and then it was torn through the big tunnels out and was torn up the hill by the freight elevator, and then it could start.>

Walpersberg near Kahla 18: Tunnel
                              caretaker Heinz Rabe in a hall
Walpersberg near Kahla 18: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe in a hall
Walpersberg near Kahla 19: hall, the
                            other end
Walpersberg near Kahla 19: hall, the other end
Walpersberg near Kahla 20: Tunnel
                            caretaker Heinz Rabe telling
Walpersberg near Kahla 20: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe telling

Speaker:
On the totally hollowed out back of the mountain the Germans had even built a runway. the serial production of the jet fighters was only a question of time. But only few were starting yet. [Foto: Back of the mountain with runway]

Walpersberg near Kahla 21: Runway on
                            the back of the mountain 01
Walpersberg near Kahla 21: Runway on the back of the mountain 01
Walpersberg near Kahla 22: Runway on
                            the back of the mountain 02
Walpersberg near Kahla 22: Runway on the back of the mountain 02

Herbert Roemer, former detainee at Walpersberg near Kahla:
Walpersberg near Kahla 23: Herbert Roemer
                  telling, testimony
Walpersberg near Kahla 23: Herbert Roemer telling, testimony

<I can remember two starts yet of the Me-262. We were busy with open air working at a place where we could see what was happening on the mountain. We all looked up and some were even pointing to the horizon. And then we saw a thing which was flying peculiarly fast. And one could really - well - to classify this as a wonder weapon category.>

[Hitler's air defense under Himmler wanted to defend Germany with Me-262 fighters since 1942, but Hitler did not want it. There are heavy indications that Hitler had Parkinson...]



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9.
Dimensions of the tunnel constructioning: 100,000s detainees brought back to the Reich up to the last day


Speaker:
The Nazi leadership had big hopes for the much conjured "wonder weapon". But at the end the ultramodern jet fighter could not do anything against the superiority of the allied air forces.

[Supplement: because of lack of jet fuel].

Jet fighter ME262 flying 01
Jet fighter ME262 flying 01
Jet fighter ME262 flying 02
Jet fighter ME262 flying 02
Jet fighter ME262 flying 03
Jet fighter ME262 flying 03

Despite of this up to the last day hundreds of thousands of concentration camp CC detainees were brought from the death camps in the east to the Reich to build up the new airplane production plants.

Jet fighter (jet bomber?) ME262 flying
                            04
Jet fighter ME262 flying 04
Jet fighter ME262 flying 05
Jet fighter ME262 flying 05
Jet fighter ME262 flying 06
Jet fighter ME262 flying 06

[So, the death did not come allways in the death camp in Poland, but in the tunnel constructioning, but some also survived this].


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10.
Underground airplane production plant: Muehldorf on the Inn: approx. 2,000 deaths

Speaker:
In February 1945 Max Mannheimer came from Auschwitz to Muehldorf on the Inn.  

Mühldorf on the Inn 01: Former
                            Auschwitz detainee Max Mannheimer from a
                            distance
Mühldorf on the Inn 01: Former Auschwitz detainee Max Mannheimer from a distance
Mühldorf on the Inn 02: Former
                            Auschwitz detainee Max Mannheimer
Mühldorf on the Inn 02: Former Auschwitz detainee Max Mannheimer

Max Mannheimer,  former Auschwitz detainee at Mühldorf on the Inn
Mühldorf on the Inn 03: Former Auschwitz
                    detainee Max Mannheimer is telling giving his
                    testimony
Mühldorf on the Inn 03: Former Auschwitz detainee Max Mannheimer is telling giving his testimony

<We knew that there should be built up an underground airplane production plant. And - eh - this was known for sure. And also the reason was known: because the above-ground armament production plants were all bombed.

[Supplement: The allied only bombed some armament production plants, but normally bombed the civil population, only].
Mühldorf on the Inn 04, hall
Mühldorf on the Inn 04, hall
Then there was made the decision that all should be put underground. Here for example there should be the plant 3 levels under the earth, 3 levels over the earth. So, this was appearing to me like a building site in old Egypt when the pyramids were built: A huge mass of humans, going forth and back, driven by kapos. Because this was a project which should be completed very fast.>

[Foto: Building site with wide stone wall]
Mühldorf on the Inn 05, building site
Mühldorf on the Inn 05, building site
Speaker:

On a length of 400 m should be built up a 5 m thick concrete shell as a hall for a production hall. About 2,000 detainees were dying during the works.
Mühldorf on the Inn 06, the hall, sight
                          from the side
Mühldorf on the Inn 06, the hall, sight from the side
Max Mannheimer, former Auschwitz detainee at Mühldorf on the Inn:

<The main works consisted in earth movements, carrying iron and cement. This was really the worst commando, and it was feared. 
Mühldorf on the Inn 07, armouring irons
                          for the further construction were already set
Mühldorf on the Inn 07, armoring irons for the further construction were already set
In these times the SS doctors were calculating like this: A detainee who had to work hard like this had a lifespan of 60 to 80 days. And this was also the truth.>
Mühldorf on the Inn 08, tunnel approach
                          with rail track
Mühldorf on the Inn 08, tunnel approach with rail track
Speaker:
Max Mannheimer's weight at the end of the war was 37 kg. Many of his fellow sufferers could not see the liberation any more.


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11.
Dimensions of the tunnel constructioning: Last transport into CCs in April / May 1945, e.g. to Dachau


Speaker:

They had been evacuated shortly before folded in box wagons to other camps and in the direction of Dachau. The pictures of the deads and the survivors were shocking the whole world.

[Fotos: Camp with people in detainee uniform, cooking in the street, searching barrels]

CC Dachau at the end of the war 01:
                          Arrival of a freight train with a guard
CC Dachau at the end of the war 01: Arrival of a freight train with a guard
CC Dachau at the end of the war 02:
                          Detainee lying on the ground 01
CC Dachau at the end of the war 02: Detainee lying on the ground 01
CC Dachau at the end of the war 03:
                          Detainees almost dead in a box wagon
CC Dachau at the end of the war 03: Detainees almost dead in a box wagon
CC Dachau at the end of the war 04:
                          Detainee lying on the ground 02
CC Dachau at the end of the war 04: Detainee lying on the ground 02
CC Dachau at the end of the war 05:
                          Walking detainees
CC Dachau at the end of the war 05: Walking detainees
CC Dachau at the end of the war 06:
                          Detainees cooking a soup in the street
CC Dachau at the end of the war 06: Detainees cooking a soup in the street
CC Dachau at the end of the war 07: A
                          detainee spooning his soup
CC Dachau at the end of the war 07: A detainee spooning his soup
CC Dachau at the end of the war 08: A man
                          searching a barrel
CC Dachau at the end of the war 08: A man searching a barrel


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12.
Underground tunnel system in the dogger work near Hersbruck for BMW motor production, pseudonym: "Esche 1" ("Ash Tree 1") - approx. 3,500 deaths


Speaker:
In a forest north east of Nuremberg: There is a hidden tunnel portal. Normally it's closed by a concrete wall. Mining engineers opened it to perform safety works.

Signboard over the tunnel portal: <Feldhaus Bergbau "Glückauf"> (Engl.: <Country house mining "Good luck">)

Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 01: Portal,
                          upper part
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 01: Portal, upper part
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 02: Entrance
                          with lane
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 02: Entrance with lane

Speaker:

The dogger work near Hersbruck is classified as one of the bigger underground plants which had been built by the Nazis [by the detainees].

Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 03: Tunnel
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 03: Tunnel
Until now (2003) the population in the neighboring villages on the Franconian Alb does not know how big the mysterious tunnel system in the mountain really is. The casing of the tunnels partly was complete, but as it seems they were never used.
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 04: tunnel
                        crossing
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 04: tunnel crossing
[Foto: Construction machine in the tunnel]

One time a year Heinz Rabe is controlling the plant. Above all during the winter the tunnels are partly collapsing and have to be repaired by much work.
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 05: Tunnel
                          caretaker Heinz Rabe 01
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 05: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe 01
The mining expert only knows too precisely how dangerous is the work underground. Above all in parts which have got no casing in Nazi times [by the detainees] there can fall rocks at any time.
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 06: Tunnel
                          caretaker Heinz Rabe 02
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 06: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe 02
Heinz Rabe, tunnel caretaker in S and E Germany:

<Yes, here we leave now the safe tunnel part and we come to the unsafe tunnel part. You can see, all is sandstone without casing. And here we have the biggest dangers - that sandstone packs could fall from the crown and then can cause clefts and movements which can go up to the surface of the earth.>
Doggerwerk
                            near Hersbruck 07: Tunnel caretaker Heinz
                            Rabe telling
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 07: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe telling

Speaker:
Under the Nazi authorities the plant had the pseudonym "Esche 1".

Heinz Rabe, tunnel caretaker:

<We come now to the part of the heading. Here there was planned to drift the tunnel. We see this because there are drill holes
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 08: Tunnel
                          caretaker Heinz Rabe showing at drill holes
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 08: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe showing at drill holes
- you see here the black spots - Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 09: drill
                          holes
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 09: drill holes
have been prepared for the explosive charges. And when one has luck one can find aside the drill pipe which is sticking yet -
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 10: drill pipe
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 10: drill pipe
this is the original - one can find yet in the drill holes -
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 11: drill hole
                          with explosive cartridge
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 11: drill hole with explosive cartridge
here we have one - explosive cartridges.
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 12: explosive
                          cartridge 01
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 12: explosive cartridge 01
So, the drilling holes were already loaded.
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 13: explosive
                          cartridge 02
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 13: explosive cartridge 02
So, it was ready to be blasted,
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 14: explosive
                          cartridge with powder
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 14: explosive cartridge with powder
and from one to another day it stopped, and they were left all here."
Doggerwerk bei Hersbruck 15: Tunnel
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 15: Tunnel

Speaker:
Over 9,000 detainees from the CC Flossenbuerg were forced to work here under inhuman conditions to complete the tunnels as fast as possible. About 3,500 have died by this.

Heinz Rabe, tunnel caretaker in S and E Germany, is showing a plan with the tunnels in rectangles:

<There was projected a plant of a total of good 100,000
m2 and about 15,000 m2 were realized. The whole plant should have drifted forward here. One can see this on these beginnings. The tunnels all are built in distances of 20 m and should serve as production plants.

Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 16: Tunnel
                          caretaker Heinz Rabe showing the plan 01
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 16: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe showing the plan 01
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 17: Tunnel
                          caretaker Heinz Rabe showing the plan 02
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 17: Tunnel caretaker Heinz Rabe showing the plan 02

This plant had begun in March 1944, and the drift was performed until May '45, and about 7.5 km tunnels had been realized, and a part of it, about 10 percent, already got a concrete casing, and the rest was practically in a raw state yet.

The plant should be ready for the motor production, for BMW motor production for airplanes, to put the production from over-ground into bombproof underground rooms.>

Speaker:
The slave workers had taken out half a million m3
dogger sandstone from the mountain. But airplane motors have never been produced here.

Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 18: tunnel
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 18: tunnel
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 19: tunnel
                          crossing
Doggerwerk near Hersbruck 19: tunnel crossing

Speaker [about the situation after 1945]:
On the order of the American occupation forces the tunnel portals were walled up after the war. The left plant was forgotten. From time to time CC detainees come here to remember of their murdered fellows.

[Supplement:
There is the question why the allied media have "forgotten" all death places of tunnel constructioning. They made propaganda that Jews were "gassed" - but many of them died in the tunnels].



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13.
Underground rocket production after the bombing of Peenemünde: for V2 (A4): Nordhausen: Kohnstein: 10,000s of deaths


Speaker: Above all from one branch of service the Nazi leadership hoped for the decisive turnaround of the war. In the propaganda manner of the Third Reich is was named V2, V for "Vergeltung" (Engl.: recompense). [Fotos: rocket V2 set up]

Rocket V2, ground with rocket wings
Rocket V2, ground with rocket wings
Rocket V2, top of the rocket with a
                          worker who is polishing the top of the rocket
Rocket V2, top of the rocket with a worker
who is polishing the top of the rocket

The rocket technician Wernher von Braun had developed the new missile type A4 and had brought it to production.

[Foto: Wernher von Braun on a meeting].
Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
With the V2 one wanted to destroy targets in England and to terrorize the British civil population.

[Foto: starting rocket].

Rocket V2 at liftoff 01
Rocket V2 at liftoff 01
Rocket V2 at liftoff 02
Rocket V2 at liftoff 02
Rocket V2 at liftoff 03
Rocket V2 at liftoff 03

Despite of many failures - the V2 was ready for operation in summer '44.

[Fotos: A rocket cannot get it's liftoff, is falling and exploding on the launching pad].

Rocket V2, failure 01, the rocket begins
                          to incline
Rocket V2, failure 01, the rocket begins to incline
Rocket V2, failure 02, the rocket is
                          falling
Rocket V2, failure 02, the rocket is falling
Rocket V2, failure 03, the rocket is
                          striking on the ground
Rocket V2, failure 03, the rocket is striking on the ground
Rocket V2, failure 04, the rocket is
                          exploding on the ground 01
Rocket V2, failure 04, the rocket is exploding on the ground 01
Rocket V2, failure 05, the rocket is
                          exploding on the ground 02
Rocket V2, failure 05, the rocket is exploding on the ground 02

There is an unimpressive back of a mountain in the Harz Mountains.

[Foto: a back of a mountain].
Kohnstein 01, the back of the mountain
Kohnstein 01, the back of the mountain

In the middle of April in 1945 American troops reached the town of Nordhausen. In the shadow of Kohnstein mountain they find a concentration camp with cadaverous detainees and many dead bodies.

[Fotos: GIs entering the camp; men sitting in the sun, one sees the ribs, about 8 human bodies on a barrow, covered with clothe or blanket, partly one can see the heads].

Kohnstein 02, detainees in the sun
Kohnstein 02, detainees in the sun
Kohnstein 03, Ami soldiers at a detainee
Kohnstein 03, Ami soldiers at a detainee
Kohnstein 04, Ami soldier leaving the
                          detainee
Kohnstein 04, Ami soldier leaving the detainee
Kohnstein 05, two detainees
Kohnstein 05, two detainees
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Kohnstein 06, dead bodies
Kohnstein 06, dead bodies
Kohnstein 07, a detainee is reporting to
                          an Ami soldier
Kohnstein 07, a detainee is reporting to an Ami soldier

Survivors of the camp Mittelbau-Dora are reporting to the liberators about the mysterious tunnel in the mountain, about a very secret rocket factory where they had to work as slave workers of the SS.

[Fotos: GIs in the production plants].

Kohnstein 08, Danger sign
                          "Gefahrenzone" ("danger
                          area")
Kohnstein 08, Danger sign "Gefahrenzone" ("danger area")
Kohnstein 09, Ami soldier before a rocket
                          head
Kohnstein 09, Ami soldier before a rocket head
Kohnstein 10, Ami soldier before a tunnel
                          portal
Kohnstein 10, Ami soldier before a tunnel portal 

But the winners know since a long time that here is one of the most important weapon production plants of the Third Reich. After a devastating bomb attack of the British against the development plant in Peenemuende the Nazis decided to put the rocket production underground in August 1943 into an existing fuel deposit. The detainees of concentration camps had to begin with the extension at once - under horrible conditions.

[Fotos: Tunnel in raw state with wooden intermediate floor].

Kohnstein 11, tunnel with wooden
                        intermediate floor 01
Kohnstein 11, tunnel with wooden intermediate floor 01
Kohnstein 12, tunnel with wooden
                        intermediate floor 02
Kohnstein 12, tunnel with wooden intermediate floor 02

Jens-Christian Wagner, historian of the memorial place Mittelbau-Dora:
Kohnstein 13, Jens Christian Wagner telling
Kohnstein 13, Jens Christian Wagner telling

<The 10,000s of detainees were sheltered in 4 crosswise tunnel systems. That means: They were sheltered where they had to work. The detainees were clothed absolutely inadequately for this what forced labour they had to do. They had thin, striped detainee uniforms in the cold. It was very humid. This lead to lung illnesses rapidly. And it's no wonder that - em - many of the 3,000 deaths in the first 5 months were killed by TBC and other lung illnesses, all other [of the later time when the detainees were no more forced to eat and to sleep in the tunnels] - em - they died because of exhaustion, invalidation, death by hunger, death from cold, and - one has to consider - by the maltreatment by the SS personal, but also by civil employees of the Mittelwerk.>

Speaker [situation today]:
Today the 250.000 m2 big tunnel system of the Kohnstein is mostly closed because the stay in the unsafe tunnels is dangerous for life. Only men from mining safety are going in from time to time to control the plant. But there are always treasure seekers or criminal souvenir hunters trying to intrude here. Because: Original parts from the rocket mountain are extremely wanted by the collectors.

[Fotos: Tunnel with oxidizing rocket parts, partly in the seepage water].

Kohnstein 14: Broken parts in the tunnel
Kohnstein 14: Broken parts in the tunnel
Kohnstein 15: Marching through a tunnel
                          with broken parts 01
Kohnstein 15: Marching through a tunnel with broken parts 01
Kohnstein 16: Tunnel with broken parts
                          from the rocket plant 01
Kohnstein 16: Tunnel with broken parts from the rocket plant 01
Kohnstein 17: Tunnel with broken parts
                          from the rocket plant 02, a wheel on an axis
                          01
Kohnstein 17: Tunnel with broken parts from the rocket plant 02, a wheel on an axis 01
Kohnstein 18: Tunnel with broken parts
                          from the rocket plant 03, a wheel on an axis
                          02
Kohnstein 18: Tunnel with broken parts from the rocket plant 03, a wheel on an axis 02
Kohnstein 19: Tunnel with broken parts
                          from the rocket plant 04
Kohnstein 19: Tunnel with broken parts from the rocket plant 04

Peter Wolff was brought from Auschwitz to Mittelbau-Dora. As a Jewish detainee he got the camp number 105,065. He does not want to enter the tunnel any more, the remembrance is too awful.
Kohnstein 20: Former Auschwitz detainee
                          Peter Wolff in a distance
Kohnstein 20: Former Auschwitz detainee Peter Wolff in a distance
Kohnstein 21: Former Auschwitz detainee
                        Peter Wolff
Kohnstein 21: Former Auschwitz detainee Peter Wolff

Peter Wolff, former Auschwitz detainee:
Kohnstein 22: Former Auschwitz detainee Peter Wolff
                is telling, testimony
Kohnstein 22: Former Auschwitz detainee  Peter Wolff is telling, testimony

<We detainees were brought by railway from the barracks Nordhausen to the tunnel system every morning. We were considered the "death commando" and we also named us like this. The work outside was - let's say - eh - easier - eh - than inside because inside one was more under the control of the SS, under the constant control of the SS. The people were continuously beaten.

Before our times the people had seen no daylight because they were enclosed in the tunnel. They were sleeping, eating and working in the tunnel. The conditions were murderous. The brutality of the SS, this cannot be reflected in words at all. Many, so, many have died.>

Speaker:

Today only the remembrance is witness of the incredible suffering of the SS slaves. The inner of the mountain is an expanse of rubble. It is hardly imaginable that there was a complete factory here.

[Foto: Tunnel with broken parts].
Kohnstein 23: March through a tunnel with
                          broken parts 02
Kohnstein 23: March through a tunnel with broken parts 02
All in all the armament department had projected 200 million Reichsmark to create the gigantic underground industrial area on 600,000 m2. The V weapon production was the core.
Kohnstein 24, excavated material
Kohnstein 24, excavated material
1,000 of them, this was the ambitious plan, should be produced every month. In April 1944 the capacity was 450 rockets. But even this number was hardly reached because the production only seldom was working fluently.
Kohnstein 25, marching through a tunnel
                          with broken parts 03
Kohnstein 25, marching through a tunnel with broken parts 03

[Fotos: Broken parts from a rocket and from the production plant in the tunnel, partly in seepage water].

Kohnstein 26, tunnel with broken parts of
                          a rocket production plant, a wheel on an axis
                          03
Kohnstein 26, tunnel with broken parts of a rocket production plant, a wheel on an axis 03
Kohnstein 27, tunnel with broken parts of
                          a rocket production plant, tanks
Kohnstein 27, tunnel with broken parts of a rocket production plant, tanks

Jens-Christian Wagner, historian of the memorial site Mittelbau-Dora:

<This was not a normal factory, because there were produced products which were not ready yet to go into production. That means: Almost daily there were ordered changes by the development plant of the A4 rocket at Peenemuende - there were ordered changes of production which were incorporated into the ongoing production process with the corresponding consequences: Over the half of the rockets did not function.>

Kohnstein 28: Rockets set up
Kohnstein 28: Rockets set up

Speaker: .
Seldom color fotos, taken by Hitler's cameraman Walter Frentz.

[Fotos: Detainees composing rocket parts].

Kohnstein 29: Detainees working at a
                          rocket
Kohnstein 29: Detainees working at a rocket
Kohnstein 30: Detainees working on
                            electronics 01
Kohnstein 30: Detainees working on electronics 01
Kohnstein 31: Detainees working on
                            electronics 02
Kohnstein 31: Detainees working on electronics 02

Under the instruction of German technicians the elected detainees were composing the rockets of about 45,000 single parts.

Kohnstein 32: Detainees on rocket parts
Kohnstein 32: Detainees on rocket parts
Kohnstein 33: Work on a rocket wing
Kohnstein 33: Work on a rocket wing
Kohnstein 36, rocket head
Kohnstein 35, rocket, base
Kohnstein 35 and 36, rocket
Kohnstein 34: Häftlinge an einem
                          Raketentriebwerk
Kohnstein 34: Detainee on a rocket engine

The complete V2 was brought to tunnel no. 41 for a final control. Today the 15 meters high test station is almost completely under water. From here the rockets were loaded on trains and were brought to the launching bases in North Germany and in the occupied Holland.

Speaker [about the robbery of technique by the allies]:
After the end of the war first British and American robbed all what they could use. Then the Soviets came and robbed what was left yet. But in tunnel no. 29 there are remnants of the underground rocket production until now. Engines and other parts of the V2 are oxidizing in the water.

[Fotos: Oxidizing rocket parts in the seepage water].

Kohnstein 37, rack in the water
Kohnstein 37, rack in the water
Kohnstein 38, rocket engine in a water
                          slop in a distance
Kohnstein 38, rocket engine in a water slop in a distance
Kohnstein 39, rocket engine in a water
                          slop
Kohnstein 39, rocket engine in a water slop
Kohnstein 40, rocket part, pipe
Kohnstein 40, rocket part, pipe

These are the last remnants of the mad idea to put the armament production of the Third Reich underground. It's not sure if a high number of intact rockets had had any influence on the war. In the Kohnstein the production was almost invulnerable.

[Foto: oxidizing rocket parts in the seepage water].

Kohnstein 41, broken parts reflecting in
                          the water 01
Kohnstein 41, broken parts reflecting in the water 01
Kohnstein 42, broken parts reflecting in
                          the water 02
Kohnstein 42, broken parts reflecting in the water 02

[Supplement from: The underground Reich - part 1:

Speaker:
At Nordhausen in the Harz Mountains there died 10,000s of slave workers].

Jens-Christian Wagner, historian of the memorial site at Mittelbau-Dora:

<The allied services had far going and very detailed information about what was happening here. The essentials were air fotos. For example air shafts of the Kohnstein were detected on the photos to a meter, and one has - eh - thought about it a long time to through e.g. phosphor bombs or similar things through the air shafts. By this the underground production plant - em - would have been bombed or made unusable.>

Speaker:
Films of the US army from 12 April 1945. In the Boelkle barrack which suffered a heavy damage by a British bombing the liberators see the whole horror of the camp system of Mittelbau Dora.

[Fotos: The Boelkle barrack and detainees in detainee uniforms, partly they look well nourished].

Kohnstein 43, Boelkle barrack 01
Kohnstein 43, Boelkle barrack 01
Kohnstein 44, Boelkle barrack 02
Kohnstein 44, Boelkle barrack 02
Kohnstein 45, Boelkle barrack, a barrack
                        entrance
Kohnstein 45, Boelkle barrack, a barrack  entrance
Kohnstein 46, detainees, upright
Kohnstein 46, detainees, upright
Kohnstein 47, detainees, sitting
Kohnstein 47, detainees, sitting
Kohnstein 48, detainees, lying
Kohnstein 48, detainees, lying
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Kohnstein 49, detainee, sitting
Kohnstein 49, detainee, sitting

The cadaverous SS slaves were brought here to die. Destruction by working.

Peter Wolff, former detainee:
<The many deaths which one can see [foto: human bodies on the floor, partly the ribs are strongly visible, obviously dead]

Kohnstein 50, dead detainees 01
Kohnstein 50, dead detainees 01
Kohnstein 51, dead detainees 02
Kohnstein 51, dead detainees 02
Kohnstein 52, dead detainees 03
Kohnstein 52, dead detainees 03

one accustoms to it some time. Early in the morning there was the roll-call inspection. Of course - many had died during the night - these had to be brought and put aside.
Kohnstein 53, a detainee spooning an egg
Kohnstein 53, a detainee spooning an egg
Kohnstein 54, former Auschwitz detainee
                          is telling givin his testimony
Kohnstein 54, former Auschwitz detainee is telling givin his testimony

They also were counted, isn't ? One was always happy that one was alive in the evening. I was asked many times: "Why was there no resistance against the SS people?" and so on. Then I have to say always: "When we were alive in the evening we had made enough resistance during all day long".>


The V2 hit England - Goebbels's logic against England

NS newsreel 1944:
<We present to you the first fotos of the V2 on it's flight to England. Secrecy affords that the fotos are taken from a greater distance. So there is only a weak impression of the real proportions of the V2. In a raving velocity the slender steel is going up into the stratosphere.>

[Fotos: Rocket in the sky, add to this dramatic orchestral music]

NS newsreel 1944 01, rocket liftoff 01
NS newsreel 1944 01, rocket liftoff 01
NS newsreel 1944 02, rocket liftoff 02
NS newsreel 1944 02, rocket liftoff 02
NS newsreel 1944 03, rocket liftoff 03
NS newsreel 1944 03, rocket liftoff 03
NS newsreel 1944 04, rocket liftoff 04
NS newsreel 1944 04, rocket liftoff 04
NS newsreel 1944 05, rocket liftoff 05
NS newsreel 1944 05, rocket liftoff 05

Speaker:
The target of the lethal weapon was above all London. On 7 September 1944 the first V2 hit the center of the British main town.

[Fotos: Ruins and rescues in London].

London 1944 01: Tower Bridge, air foto
London 1944 01: Tower Bridge, air foto
London 1944 02: Ruins after rocket
                          impact
London 1944 02: Ruins after rocket impact
London 1944 03: Search groups going into
                          the ruins
London 1944 03: Search groups going into the ruins
London 1944 04: There is an arm giving a
                          sign
London 1944 04: There is an arm giving a sign
London 1944 05: A dead on a barrow is
                          brought away
London 1944 05: A dead on a barrow is brought away
London 1944 06: A dead on a barrow is
                          covered 01
London 1944 06: A dead on a barrow is covered 01
London 1944 07: A dead on a barrow is
                          covered 02
London 1944 07: A dead on a barrow is covered 02
London 1944 08: A dead on a barrow is
                          covered 03
London 1944 08: A dead on a barrow is covered 03
London 1944 09: A dead on a barrow is
                          brought away, long shot
London 1944 09: A dead on a barrow is brought away, long shot

The Nazi leadership wanted to send 10,000s of them. Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels triumphed. At the home front the first successes with the wonder weapon were ruthlessly instrumentalized.

[Supplement: The allies did the same when they bombed German towns].

Goebbels speech 1944 01: Hello with
                          Hitler salute 01
Goebbels speech 1944 01: Hello with Hitler salute 01
Goebbels speech 1944 02: Hello with
                          Hitler salute 02
Goebbels speech 1944 02: Hello with Hitler salute 02
Goebbels speech 1944 03: Goebbels
                          speaking
Goebbels speech 1944 03: Goebbels speaking
Goebbels speech 1944 04: Public
                          applauding
Goebbels speech 1944 04: Public applauding

Goebbels speech in a stadium 1944:

<After the heavy attacks against the capital of the Reich Berlin I had declared: "There will come the hour when we will pay this back to the English." The English press attacked me the following day very hardly and was mockingly putting the question if the new weapon that I had announced would have been invented in the propaganda department instead in the armament department. Then I thought this would not be my task to put the English right but I was convinced: The more they would believe that it would not come the better it is. Because the surprise is also a weapon.>


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14.
Underground rocket silos (rocket launching pads) for V2 in Watten


Speaker:
The first plan of the Nazi leadership was that the V weapons would be launched from huge launch bunkers. By this since May 1943 there was built a long concrete colossus in Watten in north western France, 40 m large and 75 m long. The German engineers believed that the 5 m thick concrete ceiling would be impenetrable. In summer 1944 British special forces proved the contrary.

[Fotos: Concrete ruins].

Launching pad bunker in Watten 01,
                        corridor
Launching pad bunker in Watten 01, corridor
Launching pad bunker in Watten 02, concrete
                        ceiling 01
Launching pad bunker in Watten 02, concrete ceiling 01
Launching pad bunker in Watten 02, concrete
                        ceiling 02
Launching pad bunker in Watten 02, concrete ceiling 02
Launching pad bunker in Watten 04, ruins
                        and corridor
Launching pad bunker in Watten 04, ruins and corridor

The incomplete plant was heavily damaged by bombs and was unusable for the launching of V weapons. After the attack the inner of the gigantic plant was changed into a plant for fuel production.

[Foto: High halls of concrete with intermediate floors of wood, the ground is partly under water].

Launching pad bunker in Watten 05, ruins in
                        the water 01
Launching pad bunker in Watten 05, ruins in the water 01
Launching pad bunker in Watten 06, ruins in
                        the water 02
Launching pad bunker in Watten 06, ruins in the water 02
Launching pad bunker in Watten 07, hall 01
Launching pad bunker in Watten 07, hall 01
Launching pad bunker in Watten 08, hall 02
Launching pad bunker in Watten 08, hall 02
Launching pad bunker in Watten 09, hall 03
Launching pad bunker in Watten 09, hall 03
Launching pad bunker in Watten 10, portal
                        of the hall
Launching pad bunker in Watten 10, portal of the hall

There is a well proportioned model of a V2 remembering of the original purpose.

[Foto: Model in two dimensions of a V2 fixed on a wall, the ground is under water].

Launching pad bunker in Watten 11, rocket model in
              two dimensions on a wall
Launching pad bunker in Watten 11, rocket model in two dimensions on a wall

The Wehrmacht said that the destruction of Watten was a strategic mistake of the allies because by this they provoked new developments. The rockets, this was the plan supported by professor Braun, were launched by many mobile gun carriages. These were easy for camouflage and could not be detected by the enemy in time. For the bomber pilots such targets were heavy to be fighted.

[Fotos: Transport of V2 rockets on railway wagon and on single carriages].

NS film: Rocket is loaded 01
NS film: Rocket is loaded 01
NS film: Rocket is loaded 02
NS film: Rocket is loaded 02
NS film: A rocket is placed on a
                          carriage
NS film: A rocket is placed on a carriage

Bob Knight, British bomber pilot of the special unit "Dambusters":
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
<We precisely knew about the danger, above all when the V2 was coming. They were launched from the continent and hit England just somewhere.

[Foto: erected V2 on a carriage ready for launch].

NS film: A rocket is erected on a
                            carriage
NS film: A rocket is erected on a carriage
NS film: A rocket is set up on a
                          carriage
NS film: A rocket is set up on a carriage

[Stalin's armament industry developed parallely the "Stalin organ": with several rockets staying on one single carriage].

Bob Knight is telling:
The British former bomber pilot Rob Night is
                telling giving his testimony
The British former bomber pilot Rob Night is telling giving his testimony

This is really horrible. For the people who knew more about it - e.g. Winston Churchill - it was decisive because they had to worry about the moral in the population. For us this was simply a job which we fulfilled. We knew the significance but we had no idea of the further effects.>

[Foto: British bomber squadron].
GB bomber squadron, sight from the
                          cockpit
GB bomber squadron, sight from the cockpit
Speaker:
The so called "Dambusters", the 617 squadron of the Royal Air Force, was put into action always when the British secret service had identified military point targets, as also the launching pads of the V weapons were.


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15.
Underground rocket silos (rocket launching pads) for V2 in Viserne: "La coupole" - British "Tallboy" bombs

Speaker:

In Vizernes in Northern France there is - as can be said - the most spectacular underground bunker plant from which a big part of the so called "recompense weapons" should be launched.
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 01, dome
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 01, dome
The local population call the gigantic roof "La coupole" (engl.: "the dome").

[Foto: Dome and construction plan of the dome].
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 02, dome,
                          long shot
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 02, dome, long shot
In the inner it was planned that the warheads were installed on the rockets like on an assembly line.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 03,
                          construction plan of the hall
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 03, construction plan of the hall
The missiles ready for action - this was the project of the Nazis - could be shifted outside to a former stone pit and could be launched immediately.
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 04, plan of
                          the corridor to the launching pad
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 04, plan of the corridor to the launching pad

There was planned a storage capacity of 500 rockets.

[Foto: struck tunnel].

Launching pad bunker Vizernes 05, struck
                        tunnel
Launching pad bunker  Vizernes 05, struck tunnel
From the old stone pit 1,000s of forced laborers had to blast kilometers of tunnels into the mountain under inhuman conditions.

[Fotos: Long tunnels, long tunnels in raw state, filled wagons, tunnel with wooden casing].
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 06, wagons
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 06, wagons
The heart of the machinery should be protected by a 5 m thick, 55,000 tons heavy, concrete dome. The mining works in the inner had begun. Here should be erected the rockets for the final assembly of the warheads. The octagonal hall is 13 m high.

[Foto: The hall which was begun: The core of the hall is of stone existing yet].
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 07,
                          unfinished hall 01
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 07, unfinished hall 01
But just shortly after the start of construction the British secret service got news from the production plant and ordered the "Dambusters" to destroy it.
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 08,
                          unfinished hall 02
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 08, unfinished hall 02
Bob Knight, British bomber pilot of the special unit "Dambusters" (translation):

<It was necessary that we disharmed this plant

[Foto: Dome and concrete rubble, exterior view],
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 09, dome,
                          long shot
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 09, dome, long shot
before they could launch on us these awful weapons. We were prepared intensively to this operation, we were provided with all disposable informations. The basic idea was to "trench" the target. By this one could have a doubled effect. When there was a direct hit the aim would burst into 1,000 pieces. At the same time the base of the plant would be destroyed.>
British Tallboy bombs
British Tallboy bombs
Speaker:

For this project there was developed a really special bomb: The 12,000 pound heavy "Tallboys" could smash also concrete walls which were meters thick. On 17 July 1944 they were used against Vizernes.


[Fotos: Transport of "Tallboy" bombs on a lorry].
Two British Tallboy bombs on a lorry
Two British Tallboy bombs on a lorry

The 617th bomber squadron could not hit the dome. But after the attack the production plant was unusable.

[Fotos: Rectangular, deep bomb craters around the dome].

Launching pad bunker Vizernes 10, bomb
                          crater 01
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 10, bomb crater 01
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 11, bomb
                          crater 02
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 11, bomb crater 02
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 12, bomb
                          crater 03
Launching pad bunker Vizernes 12, bomb crater 03

Bob Knight, British bomber pilot of the special unit "Dambusters" (translation):

<Informations about this how an attack was performed were available fairly fast because the reconnaissance plane were making fotos of the spot shortly after the attack. Then we were said if we were successful or if we had to go there another time. But when the Tallboys had hit this normally was not necessary.>


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16.
Bunker constructioning: Underground rocket silos for V3 at Mimoyecques


Speaker:

Eleven days before, the "Dambusters" also had attacked the little village Mimoyecques, few kilometers from the Channel coast in the South of Calais.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Launching pad bunker of Mimoyecques 01,
                            sight on the village
Launching pad of bunker  Mimoyecques 01, sight on the village

In summer 1943 also here had begun the building site for an underground plant for a weapon by the command of armament minister Speer  - as it was the V2 - which should reach London directly.

[Foto: Concrete ruins]

Launching pad of bunker Mimoyecques 02,
                          concrete ruins 01
Launching pad of bunker Mimoyecques 02, concrete ruins 01
Launching pad of bunker Mimoyecques 03,
                          concrete ruins 02
Launching pad of bunker Mimoyecques 03, concrete ruins 02
Launching pad of bunker Mimoyecques 04,
                          concrete ruins 03
Launching pad of bunker Mimoyecques 04, concrete ruins 03

To put an end at Hitler's dream of a so called "England canon" one single "Tallboy" bomb was enough. It crashed through the 6 m thick concrete ceiling and exploded in the inner of the mountain.

There were 100 m long transversal shafts which were blasted into the mountain by forced laborers

[Foto: Plan]
Launching pad of bunker Mimoyecques 05,
                          plan
Launching pad of bunker Mimoyecques 05, plan
for whole batteries of a new kind of "high pressure pumps". These canons "V3", also called "Fleissiges Lieschen" ("busy Lisette") should launch grenades up to 200 km far. What kind of grenades the England canon should launch with a speed of one km per second is not clear. Rumors tell about biological or chemical combat agents. There is no proof for that.

[Foto: Tunnel with casing and in raw state].
Launching pad of bunker Mimoyecques 06,
                          tunnel
Launching pad of bunker Mimoyecques 06, tunnel
After the successful bomb attack the plant was unusable, but it was not completely destroyed. Today some of the 60 years old tunnels can be seen. A model of the so called "millipede" remembers of the perfidious idea of the Nazis.

[Foto: transversal tunnel with pump system]
Launching pad of bunker Mimoyecques 07,
                          pumping system in a transversal tunnel
Launching pad of bunker Mimoyecques 07, pumping system in a transversal tunnel

The danger for England seemed to be so great that the British premier Winston Churchill was thinking about Mimoyecques also 8 months after the liberation.

[Fotos: Big Ben; Churchill walking with entourage]
London, Big Ben, tower clock
London, Big Ben, tower clock
He could not allow that this plant would threaten the safety of his country further on, he wrote in a secret memorandum. So, also the intact tunnels of the V3 were blasted by British pioneers.

[Foto: Churchill in a car in front of the Buckingham palace]. 
Churchill in a car with cigar
Churchill in a car with cigar
Did Churchill know more about what the Nazis were planning as is known until today?


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17.
Falkenhagen near Berlin: Chemical plant with the aim of Sarin production


A dead track is leading to a no man's land: Falkenhagen, in the south east of Berlin. The British documents about the little spot in the countryside of Brandenburg are partly unaccessible today because here should be produced one of the most dangerous weapons of mass destruction of military history.

[Foto: Track ending on street of paving stones; beginning of a turnout]

Chemical plant Falkenhagen 01, track
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 01, track
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 02, track with
                        forest aisle
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 02, track with forest aisle

NS propaganda film 1944: "Kampfstoffe" ("combat agents"):
NS film "Kampfstoffe" 01 Cover
              "Kampfstoffe" ("combat agents")
NS film "Kampfstoffe" 01 Cover "Kampfstoffe" ("combat agents")

Film (translation):

"Gas is - as we understand it - a product of chemical industry which can be used as chemical combat agents in actions with the aim to have effect on the enemy and to incapacitate him. By this the chemical weapon was developed in First World War already to an effective war instrument. So, we also have to expect that the enemy is using it in the present people's fight."


[Fotos: Chemical workshop with shaking facility].

NS film "Kampfstoffe"
                            ("combat agents") 02, research
                            facility
NS film "Kampfstoffe" ("combat agents") 02, research facility
Speaker: 
A film for education of the Wehrmacht. One shows Hitler's soldiers the effect of chemical weapons "Lost" and "Hydrogen cyanide" at the living object.

[Foto: An monkey in a glass cage: There is given something not visible into the case. The monkey is soon gasping for breath and then is collapsing].
NS film "Kampfstoffe"
                          ("combat agents") 03, gas
                          experiment, there is given gas into the cage
NS film "Kampfstoffe" ("combat agents") 03, gas experiment, there is given gas into the cage
NS film "Kampfstoffe"
                          ("combat agents") 04, a monkey is
                          sitting in a glass cage
NS film "Kampfstoffe" ("combat agents") 04, a monkey is sitting in a glass cage
NS film "Kampfstoffe"
                          ("combat agents") 05, the monkey in
                          the glass cage is falling in mortis
NS film "Kampfstoffe" ("combat agents") 05, the monkey in the glass cage is falling in mortis
NS film "Kampfstoffe"
                          ("combat agents") 06, notice
                          reporting the experiment
NS film "Kampfstoffe" ("combat agents") 06, notice reporting the experiment

Great Britain, the USA and the Soviet Union had big quantities of these combat agents in the Second World War.
NS film "Kampfstoffe"
                        ("combat agents") 07, gas is given
                        into a glass cage
NS film "Kampfstoffe" ("combat agents") 07, gas is given into a glass cage
Also Nazi Germany had about 55,000 tons of them.
NS film "Kampfstoffe"
                        ("combat agents") 08, a cat sitting in
                        the glass cage
NS film "Kampfstoffe" ("combat agents") 08, a cat sitting in the glass cage
The lethal weapons were not used. The remembrance of the horror of the First World War was too cruel.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
[Foto: Cat gets efflux from the mouth].
NS film
                        "Kampfstoffe" ("combat
                        agents") 09, the saliva is coming out of
                        the cat's mouth
NS film "Kampfstoffe" ("combat agents") 09, the saliva is coming out of the cat's mouth
Dr. Hoffmann, former physician at the academy of sciences of GDR occupied himself with the history of Falkenhagen since decades.

[Foto: Dr. Hoffmann opens an oxidized iron door].

Chemical plant Falkenhagen 03, Dr. H.
                        Hoffmann from a distance
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 03, Dr. H. Hoffmann from a distance
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 04, Dr. H.
                        Hoffmann opens the door
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 04, Dr. H. Hoffmann opens the door

Protected from curious viewers the army ordnance office had hidden the plant in a wide peace of wood in 1938. Under the pseudonym "Seewerk" ("Sea plant") there were developed above all burning agents. Uncompleted parts of the building are witnesses of a project which had begun here in 1944.

[Foto: Long hall with big bays, only one floor, grass is growing on the roof].
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 05, front 01
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 05, front 01
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 06, front 02
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 06, front 02
The supreme army command had given the territory to the IG Farben to produce here a completely new chemical agent. 44 mio. Reichsmark was projected the building. There was a huge combined heat and power station completed in bricked work.

[Foto: concrete building, about 15 m high].

Chemical plant Falkenhagen 07, heat and
                          power station in bricked work
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 07, heat and power station in bricked work
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 08, heat and
                          power station, zoom
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 08, heat and power station, zoom

The chemists had brought their laboratories to Falkenhagen already.

Dr. Hoffmann, local historian:
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 11, Dr. H. Hoffmann is
                telling.
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 11, Dr. H. Hoffmann is telling.

"There was a new process of production: This was the combat agent Sarin. And this combat agent should be produced here in Falkenhagen in a world-scale plant.

[Foto: Interior view of the incomplete production hall, the heat and power station in bricked work in the background].

Chemical plant Falkenhagen 09, sight into
                        the inner 01
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 09, sight into the inner 01
Chemical
                      plant Falkenhagen 10, sight into the inner 02
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 10, sight into the inner 02

Sarin has effect especially against the breathing system. Who is in contact with this combat agent - and it's enough when for example one droplet is evaporating in one m3 air - so, one will suffocate within 6 minutes with beating hart. The respiration is put out of commission."

Speaker:
Until this date the chemical weapons had been visible for the soldiers on both sides. So, the action with gas masks was always exercised. But Sarin was new. One could not see it, not smell it, not taste it. The death came without any warning.

[Foto: NS film: Fighting scene; soldiers with gas masks]

It's said that Hitler had forbidden the use of gas because he himself had almost got blind in the First World War. But the production of sarin he ordered himself. Had he hesitated to use the new weapon when it had be available for him? With a monthly production of sarin the Nazis had been able to depopulate a large city like London.

[Fotos: Hitler with entourage, meeting upright; a follower is handing out a little case to another follower with a Nazi armlet].
When the Red Army reached the Third Reich in the beginning of 1945 the German chemists were packing their facilities in Falkenhagen. Nothing should remind of the project to the winners.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
[Foto: Empty halls with big bays]
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 13, interior
                            view with empty halls
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 13, interior view with empty halls
Sarin was never produced here. The Soviet conquerers used the factory hall for pig breeding.

Dr. Hoffmann, local historian:
"After the war the population was absolutely surprised seeing what catastrophe was prepared here. The combat agent was a pure German development which was not at all known to the allies. 500 tons a month is very much, and this had been for grenades or bombs, and it had been possible to exterminate whole territories. And there was no difference between civilians or soldiers."

Speaker:
A 80 m long, underground corridor is the rest of the half finished bottling plant for sarin. IG Farben had projected the beginning of production to their employers in summer 1945. How realistic this was cannot be cleared today.

[Foto: Corridor half underground in concrete walls]

Chemical plant Falkenhagen 14, entrance
                          to a corridor half underground
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 14, entrance to a corridor half underground
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 14, sight
                          through the corridor half underground
Chemical plant Falkenhagen 14, sight through the corridor half underground

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18.
Underground rocket production plant for intercontinental rocket A9: Ebensee near Salzburg, pseudonym: "Zement" ("Cement")


Speaker:
American tank groups on their push in Austria beginning of May 1945. The sad remnants of the Wehrmacht have capitulated and are marching into captivity. Fotos from the end of the war near Salzburg, taken by a cameraman of the US army.

Ebensee 01, invasion of the Amis 01
Ebensee 01, invasion of the Amis 01
Ebensee 02, invasion of the Amis 02
Ebensee 02, invasion of the Amis 02
Ebensee 03, guard at Ebensee with a tank
Ebensee 03, guard at Ebensee with a tank

On 8 May the war reporters reach the concentration camp CC Ebensee which was liberated two days before. They are documenting the suffering of the survivors. CC detainees and forced laborers from Ebensee were deployed by the SS in a secret tunnel system not far from the camp. Pseudonym: "Zement" ("Cement").

[Fotos: Detainees with ribs heavily standing out; detainees covering deads, carrying deads away].

Ebensee 04, long shot from above
Ebensee 04, long shot from above
Ebensee 05, the camp
Ebensee 05, the camp
Ebensee 06, emaciated detainee
Ebensee 06, emaciated detainee
Ebensee 07, emaciated detainee
Ebensee 07, emaciated detainee
Ebensee 08, detainees making rest on
                          suitcases
Ebensee 08, detainees making rest on suitcases
Ebensee 09, dead bodies are loaded on a
                          trolley
Ebensee 09, dead bodies are loaded on a trolley
Ebensee 10, detainee on a barrow
Ebensee 10, detainee on a barrow

Speaker [situation today and in 1943]:

Today one time a day there is coming a diesel engine to the mountain to transport the lime which won there. 60 years ago the family enterprise was expropriated and was given to the SS for the production of the spectacular new development concerning armament. The plant was never taken in to action. But above all in the former tunnel "A" the former destination can be recognized yet.

[Foto: A red diesel engine is coming into the two laned tunnel and wagons are connected].

Ebensee11, shunting locomotive coming
Ebensee11, shunting locomotive coming
Ebensee12, wagon train in the tunnel
Ebensee12, wagon train in the tunnel

30 m high are the halls in which it was supposed to assemble even intercontinental ballistic missiles under leadership of SS supreme group leader Hans Kammler.

[Fotos: 30 m high hall with concrete casing]

Ebensee13, hall 01
Ebensee13, hall 01
Ebensee14, hall 02
Ebensee14, hall 02
Ebensee15, hall 03
Ebensee15, hall 03

So, the latest model, the 26 m high A9, would even reach the USA. This was the ambitious plan of the Nazis.

20 exemplars per month should be assembled in Ebensee. [Foto: wagon train in the tunnel]

The A9 was not tested any more. The inventor Wernher von Braun could go to the USA after the end of the war without any problem to devote his rocket research to "new bosses". The precise number of victims of his work in duty of Hitler is unknown. [Foto: wagon train leaving the tunnel]


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19.
The concrete encased and then blasted Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) - a table is saving Hitler's life


Speaker:
Newsreel pictures of the Wolf's Lair near Rastenburg in summer 1944. Hitler says goodbye to dictator Benito Mussolini.
[Foto: Newsreel: Mussolini in the train]

Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 01: Hitler with
                        Mussolini with entourage
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 01: Hitler with Mussolini with entourage
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 02: Hitler with
                        Mussolini
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 02: Hitler with Mussolini
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 03, Mussolini
                        looking through the window of the train, Hitler
                        in front of it 01
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 03, Mussolini looking through the window of the train, Hitler in front of it 01
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 04, Mussolini
                        looking through the window of the train, Hitler
                        in front of it 02
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 04, Mussolini looking through the window of the train, Hitler in front of it 02

In Eastern Prussia on 250 hectares there was sheltered the Fuehrer's headquarters and the operational headquarters of the Wehrmacht. It was protected by three trap circuits which were heavily guarded. The tracks which were once the way to the meeting between the allied with the headquarter have become overgrown today.

[Foto: overgrown tracks]
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 05, the track to
                        the Wolf's Lair today (2003)
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 05, the track to the Wolf's Lair today (2003)
The former Wolf's Lair is an expanse of rubble [Foto: big concrete ruins aside of the tracks]. Before their withdrawal the Germans blasted all buildings. The rest was working out the Red Army. Hitler's private bunker is a shapeless block. Yet in 1944 all important buildings in the core of the trap circuit had been arched over by massive ferro concrete buildings [Foto: blasted concrete bunker].
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 06, a big
                        bunker
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 06, a big bunker
Since the end of 1944 Rochus Misch hasn't been in Rastenburg any more. As a member of the so called Fuehrer's assisting commando also he had almost always been at the side of Hitler.

[Foto: Mr. Misch coming out from concrete ruins].

The return after 60 years is performing in another way than it was expected from the former bodyguard of the dictator. He has difficulties to recognize something in the ruins.
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 07, former
                        bogyguard Rochus Misch in a distance
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 07, former bodyguard Rochus Misch in a distance
Rochus Misch, Hitler's bodyguard:
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 08, former bodyguard
              Rochus Misch is telling, testimony
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 08, former bodyguard Rochus Misch is telling, testimony

"My god, that's huge. They were... The former living barracks, there were about two perhaps, at most three m high, and now there is such a colossus there. I am shaken what has been of it because all is in good remembrance how it had been normally, all here [Foto: blasted concrete bunker]. This happened in a no time procedure, incredible, but real. How fast they did this. In some weeks the whole territory has changed here, within some weeks. There were the flat barracks before. When one entered there, there were a [not understandable] to the right. There was the big room where were the briefings, a big table in it, and this was fairly constrained. That was not big. The huge had been created only afterwards." [Foto: Fuehrer's barrack].

Speaker:
In midst of July 1944 when Hitler was coming with his entourage from Berchtesgaden to his headquarter to Eastern Prussia his private bunker was not complete yet. So he lodged in the guest bunker ([Foto: high concrete wall]. The briefings were temporarily in a near positioned wooden barrack, as it was also on midday of 20 July 1944 [Foto: soil]. Hitler had asked his generals for talks. Some adjutants and servants also were in the room. On 16 minutes before one the supreme commander [Hitler] was bending over the big map table [Foto: Soil with basement]. In this moment there was exploding a bomb, which was deposed by colonel von Stauffenberg under the table. The explosive charge killed four persons and hurt seven more heavily. The barrack was destroyed almost completely.


[Foto: destroyed wooden barrack]

Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 09, Fuehrer's
                        barrack after assassination 01
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 09, Fuehrer's barrack after assassination 01
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 10, Fuehrer's
                        barrack after assassination 02
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 10, Fuehrer's barrack after assassination 02
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 11, Fuehrer's
                        barrack after assassination 03
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 11, Fuehrer's barrack after assassination 03
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 12, Fuehrer's
                        barrack after assassination 04
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 12, Fuehrer's barrack after assassination 04

Hitler was protected by the massive map table and was only slightly injured. The coup in Berlin failed in the same night yet. After the assassination the safety precautions were severed only insignificantly.

Rochus Misch, Hitler's bodyguard:
"We never were anxious. We never recognized that somebody was anxious. <There won't happen anything to me>.

[Foto: Hitler visits injured in the hospital]

Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 13, Hitler
                        visiting injured in a hospital 01
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 13, Hitler visiting injured in a hospital 01
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 14, Hitler
                        visiting injured in a hospital 02
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 14, Hitler visiting injured in a hospital 02
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 15, Hitler
                        visiting injured in a hospital 03
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 15, Hitler visiting injured in a hospital 03
When he [Hitler] was warned by this and that reason. - <Well>, he said, <but there won't happen anything to me>. There was no change basically, nothing at all. All was running like before, like the day before. The 20 July was happening, and the next days were performed normally. There was welcomed Mussolini, then other official receptions were going on, well, as nothing had happened at all before."


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20.
Bunker constructioning in the Eulengebirge (Owl Mountains) for a new leader's headquarter: Example: Gluszyca: "Säuferhöhen" ("heights of drunks")


A long time ago the dictator had ordered to replace the Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) by a new headquarter. It should be safe against enemy paratroopers and should be completely safe against bombings. The project even was not known to the narrowest assistants.

[Foto: huge concrete rubble of the Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair)]
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 16, concrete
                        expanse of rubble
Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair) 16, concrete expanse of rubble
The Owl Mountains,

[Foto: Owl Mountains in a distance]
Eulengebirge 01, Bergrücken 01
Owl Mountains 01, back of the mountain 01
an area in former Lower Silesia. In the backs of the mountain near the Polish little town Gluszyca there are hidden the really most abnormal legacies of the Third Reich.

[Foto: Landscape]
Owl Mountains 02, back of the mountain
                          02
Owl Mountains 02, back of the mountain 02
A Polish and a German hobby historian made it their business to investigate the extraordinary underground plants. Somewhere in the forest of the so called "Heights of Drunks" there is a mysterious gullet of 48 m going down. It could be an elevator shaft in raw state, this mean the experts.

[Foto: Roping down by a hole in the rocket into a huge underground hall].
Owl Mountains 03, entrance into the shaft
                          01
Owl Mountains 03, entrance into the shaft  01
Owl Mountains 04, entrance into the shaft
                          02
Owl Mountains 04, entrance into the shaft 02
Owl Mountains 05, entrance into the shaft
                          03, action roping down 01
Owl Mountains 05, entrance into the shaft 03, action roping down 01
Owl Mountains 06, entrance into the shaft
                          04, action roping down 02
Owl Mountains 06, entrance into the shaft 04, action roping down 02

The Polish teacher Jacek Duszczak and Juergen Mueller of the association "Berliner Unterwelten" ("Berlin Underground Worlds") come here since many years to get new perceptions.

And not only the gigantic hall with wooden casing is a proof that the Nazis had planned here something big.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
[Foto: Hall in the mountain, at least 8 m high, with wooden casing]
Owl Mountains 07, marching through a
                          supported tunnel
Owl Mountains 07, marching through a supported tunnel

Owl Mountains 08, marching through a hall
                          with wooden casing 01
Owl Mountains 08, marching through a hall with wooden casing 01
Owl Mountains 09, marching through a hall
                          with wooden casing 02
Owl Mountains 09, marching through a hall with wooden casing 02
Owl Mountains 10, sight through a long
                        tunnel
Owl Mountains 10, sight through a long tunnel


"Heights of Drunks": 7 [!] cavern systems - and the sudden evacuation - pseudonym: "Giant" ("Riese")

Juergen Mueller, association "Berliner Unterwelten" ("Berlin Underground Worlds"):
Owl Mountains 11, Juergen Mueller is telling
Owl Mountains 11, Juergen Mueller is telling

"All in all there are 7 underground tunnel systems. From these only a little part - about one eighths - was with a casing in concrete in some way. The rest are all tunnels which are supported with wooden logs and wooden beams. There were employed about 40,000 humans here in this area in the Owl Mountains for forced labour practically.

Here in the tunnels

[Foto: tunnel]

was a temperature of about 8 degrees, and forced laborers worked at an average of 12 and 16 hours a day. Add to this there was bad food. So you can imagine - well - that there were many deaths here."

Speaker:
When the Soviet conquered Lower Silesia at the end of April 1945 they found the gigantic building site deserted. The purpose of the plants was hidden to them first.

[According to the information of filmmaker Michael Foedrowitz at the end shortly before the withdrawal 1000s of detainees were blasted into the tunnel systems and were buried alive and the tunnel portals were camouflaged. There is presumed that there are big mass graves in the tunnel systems yet].

[Foto: Low tunnel supported by wooden beams]
Owl Mountains 12, supported corridor
Owl Mountains 12, supported corridor
Owl Mountains 13, room with concrete
                          casing
Owl Mountains 13, room with concrete casing

Jacek Duszczak, local historian (translation):
Owl Mountains 14, Jacek Duszczak is telling
Owl Mountains 14, Jacek Duszczak is telling

"Basically this object was always accessible since the end of the war. All witnesses who had been here when the Germans made their withdrawal were telling conformably that it looked like as if the workers would make a lunch rest only. In the walls one can see the drill pipes yet. There were lying shovels all over the tunnels. Wagons were filled with raw material. All looked as if they had only made a little pause for breath and after it the workers would continue their work."

Speaker
Rooms with concrete casing for the guards and loopholes for the armored machine gun installations are witnesses of the significance of the plant. Because since November 1943 under strong secrecy there was built a new Fuehrer's headquarter. Pseudonym: "Riese" ("Giant").

[Fotos: Room with concrete casing with rifles; hatch in concrete casing].

Owl Mountains 15, storeroom in concrete
                          casing
Owl Mountains 15, storeroom in concrete casing
Owl Mountains 16, tunnel crossing
Owl Mountains 16, tunnel crossing
Owl Mountains 17, raw material
Owl Mountains 17, raw material
Owl Mountains 18, supported tunnel
Owl Mountains 18, supported tunnel


"Heights of drunks": Detainees from CC Grossrosen and from Auschwitz - 50% death rate

Hitler thought that the "Wolfsschanze" ("Wolf's Lair") was not safe enough any more. The project was to create a bomb safe underground world in the Owl Mountains for 20,000 humans. For this project armament minister Speer granted 130 million Reichsmark. In August 1945 the first 40,000 m2
should be ready for occupancy.

[Foto: Hitler with entourage on a briefing at a table].
NS film 01: Hitler and Speer on a briefing
                        01
NS film 01: Hitler and Speer on a briefing 01
NS film 02: Hitler and Speer on a briefing
                        at a table with a plan
NS film 02: Hitler and Speer on a briefing at a table with a plan

Many of the slave workers for the building of "Riese" ("Giant") were drafted from the concentration camp CC Grossrosen.

[Foto: Area fenced by head-high barbed wire]

In the beginning of 1945 the camp counted over 75,000 inmates. Around 13,000 of them were sheltered in the outer camp in the Owl Mountains, mostly Jewish detainees from Auschwitz. About half of them [about 50 %] have not survived the murderous employment for the safety of the dictator.
CC Grossrosen, fence 01
CC Grossrosen, fence 01

[Fotos: Barbed wire, loudspeaker, barrack, gallows, outer sight of the portal with the inscription: "ARBEIT MACHT FREI" ("WORK MAKES FREE")].

CC Grossrosen, fence 02 with the main house
                        from the side
CC Grossrosen, fence 02 with the main house from the side
CC Grossrosen, loudspeaker
CC Grossrosen, loudspeaker
CC Grossrosen 04, fence 03 with main house,
                        front
CC Grossrosen 04, fence 03 with main house, front
CC Grossrosen 05, corridor
CC Grossrosen 05, corridor
CC Grossrosen 06, portal with the
                        inscription "Work makes free"
CC Grossrosen 06, portal with the inscription "Work makes free"

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21.
Bunker constructioning in the Eulengebirge (Owl Mountains) for a new leader's headquarter: Example Wolfsberg (Wolf Mountain)


Speaker:
The forced laborers had digged three kilometers tunnel already into the Wolfsberg (Wolf mountain), the biggest complex of the projected plants in the Owl Mountains. Today the branched tunnel system stays partly under water.

[Foto: Cruise in the tunnel system with an inflatable boat]

Owl Mountains 19, Juergen Mueller und
                          Jacek Duszczak cruising in the flooded tunnels
                          with an inflatable boat 01                                    Owl Mountains 20, Juergen Mueller und
                          Jacek Duszczak cruising in the flooded tunnels
                          with an inflatable boat 02
Owl Mountains 19 and 20, Juergen Mueller und Jacek Duszczak cruising in the flooded tunnels with an inflatable boat 01 and 02

In November 1944 approximately 55 % of the project was fulfilled. The extension of the plants should begin immediately. The original plans for the project "Riese" ("Giant") have been lost at the end of the war.
Owl Mountains 21, dripstone ceiling
Owl Mountains 21, dripstone ceiling

[Foto: Cruise with an inflatable boat]

Owl Mountains 22, Juergen Mueller und Jacek
                        Duszczak cruising in the flooded tunnels with an
                        inflatable boat 03                                   Owl Mountains 23, Juergen Mueller und Jacek
                        Duszczak cruising in the flooded tunnels with an
                        inflatable boat 04
Owl Mountains 22 and 23, Juergen Mueller und Jacek Duszczak cruising in the flooded tunnels with an inflatable boat 03 and 04

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22.
Owl Mountains: Suspicion that there are more tunnel systems


Jacek Duszczak and Juergen Mueller are convinced that there are many more tunnel systems which are not detected yet. Because according to the few notes of the Nazis it also was projected that there should be installed a huge underground production plant for the production of "wonder weapons". But 60 years later it's not easy to separate facts from rumours.

Jacek Duszczak, local historian (translation):
Owl Mountains 24, Jacek Duszczak is telling
Owl Mountains 24, Jacek Duszczak is telling

"We have the information that all detainees have been evacuated at the end of the war, up to these who should camouflage the facilities. From these any track is lost, and also from these who were the guard of this. Of course this is unconfirmed information.

[Foto: Low tunnel in bricked work supported by wooden boles]

The Nazis had very much time to camouflage the tunnels. So, it is very difficult to find the well hidden portals. They were filled up, trees are growing on them. All tracks have been destroyed.


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23.
Bunker constructioning in the Eulengebirge (Owl Mountains) for a new leader's headquarter: Example: Castle "Fuerstenstein" ("Stone of Prince")


In former times on castle Fürstenstein ("Stone of Prince") bei Waldenburg [Polish.: Walbrzych] was residing the prince of Pless.

[Foto: castle]
Waldenburg castle Fürstenstein 01: Sight of the
                castle
Waldenburg castle Fürstenstein 01: Sight of the castle


In 1940 the considerable possession of the Churchill family members was put under forced administration. Four years later there began considerable reconstruction works. The baroque jewel - as it was said - should be transformed into a guest house of the Reich's government. In real it was foreseen for Adolf Hitler and his entourage.

By this 35 architects from the "Speer building staff" were working under most severe secrecy for an underground bunker system with direct accession to the castle.

[Fotos: Castle, pompous interior view]

Waldenburg castle Fuerstenstein 02,
                          interior view 01, painted ceiling
Waldenburg castle Fuerstenstein 02, interior view 01, painted ceiling
Waldenburg castle Fuerstenstein 03,
                          interior view 02, painted wall with doors
Waldenburg castle Fuerstenstein 03, interior view 02, painted wall with doors
Waldenburg castle Fuerstenstein 04,
                          interior view 03, hall
Waldenburg castle Fuerstenstein 04, interior view 03, hall
Waldenburg castle Fuerstenstein 05,
                          interior view 04, hall with suite
Waldenburg castle Fuerstenstein 05, interior view 04, hall with suite

When danger was coming an elevator should bring the leader ("Fuehrer") 50 m deep to private rooms into the hill. 3200 m2 floor space were projected alone for the dictator and his first entourage.

[Foto: Tunnel, partly in bricked work, partly with casing].

Waldenburg castle Fürstenstein 06,
                          breakthrough to the tunnel
Waldenburg castle Fürstenstein 06, breakthrough to the tunnel
Waldenburg castle Fürstenstein 07, castle
                          bunker, corridor 01
Waldenburg castle Fürstenstein 07, castle bunker, corridor 01
Waldenburg castle Fürstenstein 08, castle
                          bunker, corridor 02
Waldenburg castle Fürstenstein 08, castle bunker, corridor 02
Waldenburg castle Fürstenstein 09, castle
                        bunker, hall
Waldenburg castle Fürstenstein 09, castle bunker, hall

Juergen Mueller, association "Berlin Underground Worlds":

"The basic idea was among others that this should be the last leader's headquarter. So, there were installed underground tunnel systems for each of the leading personalities of the Third Reich here. For example Goebbels should have it's own tunnel system. For Himmler should be an own tunnel system. Of course also the supreme command of the Wehrmacht - well - should move in here: with Keitel, with Jodl. So, there were - well - precise - well - partition plans who will get - well - m3 [?]."


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24.
The German population does not know anything about the tunnel systems - is living in ruins itself

Speaker:

At the home front these activities were absolutely unknown.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
[Foto: street bombed out].
Home front Berlin 01: Group of people in
                          bombed street
Home front Berlin 01: Group of people in bombed street
The people's community hardly saw the leader.

[Foto: bombed street with burnt tramway].
Home front Berlin 02: Burnt tramway
Home front Berlin 02: Burnt tramway
Almost every day and night the humans fled to their bunkers before the bomb attacks.
Home front Berlin 03: Road in ruins
Home front Berlin 03: Road in ruins
Because the towns were systematically razed to the ground.

[Foto: Rubble women]
Home front Berlin 04: Women are forming a
                          bucket chain to remove the rubble (rubble
                          women)
Home front Berlin 04: Women are forming a bucket chain to remove the rubble (rubble women)

For the propaganda camera head of Nazi district Joseph Goebbels was demonstrating confidence in the ruins of the Berlin Hedwig's cathedral.

[Foto: Goebbels with entourage in ruins]

Home front Berlin 05: Hedwig's cathedral
                          in ruins, interior view
Home front Berlin 05: Hedwig's cathedral in ruins, interior view
Home front Berlin 06: Goebbels in the ruins
                        of the Hedwig's cathedral
Home front Berlin 06: Goebbels in the ruins of the Hedwig's cathedral

Berlin is a preferred target for the air raids. Almost the whole glamor of the Third Reich has gone. The works for the rebuilding of the main town of the Reich were stopped since a long time. The few complete facilities were converted into war facilities.

[Foto: Crossing in Berlin taken from a house converted into a fortress].
Home front Berlin 07: Road with
                            fortress
Home front Berlin 07: Road with fortress


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25.
"Axes of coordinates" and motorway tunnel in Berlin - use of the bunker as a fabrication hall

Somewhere in the Tiergarten (zoo) there is a well camouflaged entrance to a road tunnel from Hitler's world main town "Germania".

[Foto: Opening of a shaft cover]
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Road tunnel Berlin 01, shaft cover in
                            the Tiergarten (zoo)
Road tunnel Berlin 01, shaft cover in the Tiergarten (zoo)

Since years nobody has been down there. Dietmar Arnold from the "Association Berliner Unterwelten" ("Berlin Underground Worlds") is daring the dangerous descent, because there could be toxic gases there.

[Foto: Descent on a ladder with helmet and lamp]

Road tunnel Berlin 02, descent 01
Road tunnel Berlin 02, descent 01
Road tunnel Berlin 03, descent 02
Road tunnel Berlin 03, descent 02

Dietmar Arnold:
Road tunnel Berlin 04, Dietmar Arnold in the road
              tunnel
Road tunnel Berlin 04, Dietmar Arnold in the road tunnel

Dietmar Arnold is telling:

"Yes, we are here almost 9 m under the Tiergarten (zoo) in the so called western tunnel of the axes of coordinates, projected as a motor way or motor way tunnel, almost 90 m long, 14 m large, 4.8 m high. These are to say the remnants from "Germania". The axis of coordinates is the the so called intersection of the planned east-west axis and the north-south axis. Big parts of the east-west axis have been completed. Today this is the street June 17 / Unter den Linden (Under the Limes), and the north-south axis has never been completed. Yes, and this is the rest of the pompous plans.

[Foto: Tunnel which is staying approx. 20 cm under water]
Road tunnel Berlin 05, staying appr. 20
                          cm under water
Road tunnel Berlin 05, staying approx. 20 cm under water
Only in 1967 the tunnel was rediscovered. The ceiling has been refurbished once. This can be seen here, too. One can calculate that it's cheaper when the facility is maintained as when it will be filled up."

Speaker:
There were never cars driving through this tunnel. As it seems there was put in a partition wall during a war.
Road tunnel Berlin 06, somebody installed
                          a partition wall
Road tunnel Berlin 06, somebody installed a partition wall
It's said that armament factories have continued their bomb proof armament production here. An oxidized lamp is all what is remembering to this.

[Foto: oxidized lamp on the ceiling]
Strassentunnel Berlin 07, alte Lampe
Road tunnel Berlin 07, old lamp
In the last corner of the tunnel Dietmar Arnold found indications that the tunnel was also used by the Berlin population as bomb shelter during the air raids.

Dietmar Arnold, association "Berliner Unterwelten" ("Berlin Underground Worlds"):

"This is the accession stairs where the people came down in former times. I find it really interesting how formed the stair steps are.

Road tunnel Berlin 08, used stairs
Road tunnel Berlin 08, used stairs
So, there really had to be masses of people coming down the small stair steps into the halls here. The whole could have been also an air defense door."

[Foto: Stairs, at the end a big metal frame]
Road tunnel Berlin 09, used stair step
Road tunnel Berlin 09, used stair step
Speaker: 
According to the so called leader's program there were installed air defense bunkers in all bigger towns for the population since October 1940.

[Foto: Population walking through ruins aside a bombed street]

They should enforce the keep up will. And despite the looming defeat most of the Germans in 1944 were in loyalty to their leader (Fuehrer).

[Foto: Posters on ruins of houses:
-- "Unsere Mauern brachen - unsere Herzen nicht" ("Our walls fall - our hearts not")
-- "Die Kriegsstadt Berlin grüsst den Führer!" ("The war town Berlin is saluting the leader!"
-- "Führer befiehl - wir folgen!" ("Leader give order - we will follow!")
-- "Unsere Mauern brachen, aber unsere Herzen nicht." ("Our walls fall, but our harts not").

Home front Berlin 08, shield:
                          "Unsere Mauern brechen, unsere Herzen
                          nicht" ("Our walls fall, our harts
                          not")
Home front Berlin 08, shield: "Unsere Mauern brechen, unsere Herzen nicht" ("Our walls fall, our harts not")
Home front Berlin 09, shield: "Die
                            Kriegsstadt Berlin grüsst den Führer!"
                            ("War town Berlin saluting the
                            leader!")
Home front Berlin 09, shield: "Die Kriegsstadt Berlin grüsst den Führer!" ("War town Berlin saluting the leader!")
Home front Berlin 10, shield:
                          "Führer befiehl, wir folgen!"
                          ("Leader give order, we will
                          follow!")
Home front Berlin 10, shield: "Führer befiehl, wir folgen!" ("Leader give order, we will follow!")
Home front Berlin 11, banner:
                          "Unsere Mauern brachen, aber unsere
                          Herzen nicht" ("Our walls fall, but
                          our hearts not")
Home front Berlin 11, banner:  "Unsere Mauern brachen, aber unsere Herzen nicht" ("Our walls fall, but our hearts not")

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26.
Bunker town under Dortmund


Speaker:
In Dortmund there seems to be the biggest underground air protection system of the Third Reich which is stayed intact until now. The accesses are camouflaged because for the unwanted guests it would be much too dangerous. From time to time a team of the building authority is controlling the facility.

Bunker system Dortmund 01, stairs
Bunker system Dortmund 01, stairs
Bunker system Dortmund 02, marching
                          through a corridor with casing
Bunker system Dortmund 02, marching through a corridor with casing

Ulrich Reckinger, State's building authority Dortmund:

"Well, in this section here,

[Foto: Air defense door after the stairs]
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Bunker system Dortmund 03, gas sluice
                          door
Bunker system Dortmund 03, gas sluice door
there is a typical distinctive feature of air defense facilities: these gas sluice doors. They always have a leading lock [?]. By this one could produce an over pressure in the facility and when there was a gas event out of doors there could be hindered that [not understandable]."


Bunker system Dortmund 04, Ulrich
                          Reckinger staying in the gas sluice door (air
                          protection door) and telling
Bunker system Dortmund 04, Ulrich Reckinger staying in the gas sluice door (air protection door) and telling
Speaker:
After the first major offensive of the allies in Dortmund it came out that the public air defense facilities were insufficient.
Bunker system Dortmund 05, lying frames
Bunker system Dortmund 05, lying frames
And by this one began to build a huge tunnel system under the center of the town. Up to 16 m under the earth there should be a shelter for 80,000 people from the bombs. 5 km of the facility have been completed.

[Foto: tunnel with casing with crossing]
Bunker system Dortmund 06, tunnel
                          crossing
Bunker system Dortmund 06, tunnel crossing
Ulrich Reckinger, state's building authority Dortmund:
Bunker system Dortmund 07, Ulrich Reckinger is
              telling
Bunker system Dortmund 07, Ulrich Reckinger is telling

"In this section here should be an entrance from over-ground [foto: unfinished tunnel with incline]. They did the works from the base. As one can see the raw material is still lying there. Here is the original stone which stayed after the blasts. It's lasting now almost for 60 years like this."

Question from unknown side:

"And when was this given up here?"

Bunker system Dortmund 08, raw material
                            at the unfinished tunnel
Bunker system Dortmund 08, raw material at the unfinished tunnel
Ulrich Reckinger:
Bunker system Dortmund 09, Ulrich Reckinger is
              telling
Bunker system Dortmund 09, Ulrich Reckinger is telling:

"Directly at the end of the war. So, one was working at the facility up to the end of the war, this means: April '45 we have calculation documents from this time where one can see that there was work going on there. One can also see the tools which were left here. The workers left the building site like this as you can see it here."

[Foto: Oxidized putty knife, oxidized shovel].
Bunker system Dortmund 10, old tools
Bunker system Dortmund 10, old tools
Speaker:

Since November 1943 above all war prisoners and forced laborers were the workers here. Under the work forces were also detainee of an outpost of the concentration camp CC Buchenwald.

[Foto: lots of trafficable tunnels with casing, with crossings]
Bunker system Dortmund 11, tunnel
                          crossing
Bunker system Dortmund 11, tunnel crossing
It's said that after the end of the war there were criminals sometimes in the tunnel systems fleeing from the police underground and used also the empty tunnel system as storage room for stolen goods. In the 1960s there was discussed a reutilization for civil air protection and was rejected.
Bunker system Dortmund 12, tunnel with
                          casing
Bunker system Dortmund 12, tunnel with casing
Today the facility is empty. Bunker system Dortmund 13, dripstone
                          ceiling
Bunker system Dortmund 13, dripstone ceiling
Ulrich Reckinger, state's building authority Dortmund:

"We are coming now to the section of the wider area "Kölner Platz" ("Cologne place") [Foto: tunnel]. Here we have a beautiful plan

[Foto: plan]

Bunker system Dortmund 14, Ulrich
                          Reckinger with plan 01
Bunker system Dortmund 14, Ulrich Reckinger with plan 01
from the year 1943. There one can see now how the facility had been expanded when it had been fully completed.


Bunker system Dortmund 15, Ulrich
                          Reckinger with plan 02
Bunker system Dortmund 15, Ulrich Reckinger with plan 02
This room [foto: tunnel] should be built in too floors,

[Foto: plan of the tunnel with wooden intermediate floor]

with a case in wood to keep off the humidity a little bit and to design the whole a little bit warmer, then parted into corridors and single cabins,
Bunker system Dortmund 17, plan 01
Bunker system Dortmund 17, plan 01
fresh air and exhaust air shafts. But this extension never has reached as it seems. The end of the war has put an end to the works. Yes, I think we will go ahead here. There [not understandable]."
Bunker system Dortmund 18, plan 02
Bunker system Dortmund 18, plan 02
Speaker:  
A public use is not foreseen. The state's authorities are providing that the tunnels are not collapsing.


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27.
Kaiseroda / Merkers (Thuringia): Loot was placed in the bunker systems - the secret evacuation by the allies


Film: Universal Newsreel: Title: "German Loot Discovered"; by Ed Herlihy.

Salt mine Kaiseroda 01: Film cover
                          "German Loot discovered"
Salt mine Kaiseroda 01: Film cover "German Loot discovered"
Salt mine Kaiseroda 02: Film, view of
                          Kaiseroda (or Merkers?) in Thuringia
Salt mine Kaiseroda 02: Film, view of Kaiseroda (or Merkers?) in Thuringia

[Foto: Portal to the storage area. Writing:
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
"Gemeinschaftslager Merkers der  Wintershall Aktiengesellschaft Kaiseroda"
("Common storage Merkers of the Wintershall limited company Kaiseroda"]
Salt mine Kaiseroda 03: Film, portal of
                          the storage area Merkers
Salt mine Kaiseroda 03: Film, portal of the storage area Merkers
"At Merkers, Germany, this salt mine hold one of the strangest secrets of the war. A secret it was to deal German y a crushing financial blow during the last days of the conflict. Here GIs uncovered a fabulous hord of jewelry, silver, currency, bullion, and art treasures. Much of them is accumulated loof of 5 years of war.
Salt mine Kaiseroda 04: Film, suitcase
                          with valuables
Salt mine Kaiseroda 04: Film, suitcase with valuables
Practicly every museum in Europe is represented in these master peaces which enclude Raffaels, Rembrandts, Van Dycks, and many others masters works. They are now 1,200 feet below the ground. It was - the Nazis considered - this a safe hiding place and a bomb proof shelter."

[Bilder von Schmuck, Besteck, Bilder, aber kein Gold, keine Banknoten]
Salt mine Kaiseroda 05: Film, silver
                          cutlery in a suitcase
Salt mine Kaiseroda 05: Film, silver cutlery in a suitcase

Salt mine Kaiseroda 06: Film, robbed
                          pictures (looted art) 01
Salt mine Kaiseroda 06: Film, robbed pictures (looted art) 01
Salt mine Kaiseroda 07: Film, robbed
                          pictures (looted art) 02
Salt mine Kaiseroda 07: Film, robbed pictures (looted art) 02
Salt mine Kaiseroda 08: Film, robbed
                          pictures (looted art) 03
Salt mine Kaiseroda 08: Film, robbed pictures (looted art) 03
Salt mine Kaiseroda 09: Film, robbed
                          pictures (looted art) 04
Salt mine Kaiseroda 09: Film, robbed pictures (looted art) 04
Speaker:
The tunnels of the former potash salt mine of Kaiseroda are going far through wide areas of South Thuringia. In the course of the decades the miners have digged 100s of km tunnels in several floors into the salty earth. The far branched tunnel system is similar to a labyrinth. Who wants to keep something secret here hardly has to be afraid that it will detected.

[Foto: A driver is driving with an off-road vehicle through the tunnels of the salt mine passing salt mountains].

Salt mine Kaiseroda 10: Ride through the
                          salt tunnel labyrinth 01
Salt mine Kaiseroda 10: Ride through the salt tunnel labyrinth 01
Salt mine Kaiseroda 10: Ride through the
                          salt tunnel labyrinth 02, the driver
Salt mine Kaiseroda 10: Ride through the salt tunnel labyrinth 02, the driver
Salt mine Kaiseroda 12: Ride through the
                          salt tunnel labyrinth 03
Salt mine Kaiseroda 12:  Ride through the salt tunnel labyrinth 03
Salt mine Kaiseroda 13: Ride through the
                          salt tunnel labyrinth 04, long tunnel
Salt mine Kaiseroda 13: Ride through the salt tunnel labyrinth 04, long tunnel

After the end of the GDR the salt business is hardly running yet,
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
[Foto: ab big, yellow shovel excavator with an excavator shovel full of salt]

because the owners are expecting more profit from tourism. The history of the sensational gold discovery in 1945 shall stimulate the fantasy of the visitors. Perhaps there is hidden yet something here. The history of the sensational hiding was reconstructed without any doubt.


Salt mine Kaiseroda 14, shovel excavator
                          loaded with salt
Salt mine Kaiseroda 14, shovel excavator loaded with salt
Hartmut Ruck, mine driver from K+S Merkers:
Salt mine Kaiseroda 15, Hartmut Ruck is telling 01   Salt mine Kaiseroda 16, Hartmut Ruck is telling 02
Salt mine Kaiseroda 15 and 16, Hartmut Ruck is telling 01 and 02
"In the months February and March of the year 1945 this track which we are passing now

[Foto: salt tunnel]

was witness of the warehousing of the financial gold and foreign exchange reserves of Nazi Germany. After the devastating air raid of 3 February 1945 on Berlin - according to the documents - the president of the Reichsbank of that time, Funk, came to Hitler and wanted the evacuation practically to a safe place. The choice fell to the mine Kaiseroda 2,3, so today Merkers. And here the reserves were stored with transports of the Reich's railway until beginning of March.
Salt mine Kaiseroda 17, salt runway in
                          salt mine
Salt mine Kaiseroda 17, salt  runway in salt mine
Big parts of the staff of the mine of that time consisted of foreign workers. At least three quarters of the staff for security related things were Germans yet, so in the abstract it can be admitted that it was known beneath the foreign workers and prisoners of war who were working here, and by this the American could - after the occupation of Merkers on 4 April - find out rapidly where the gold chamber is."

[Foto: Further salt mines in the off-road vehicle, at the end old, oxidized wagons]
Salt mine Kaiseroda 18, runway with old
                          wagons aside
Salt mine Kaiseroda 18, runway with old wagons aside
Speaker:

Financial experts and art experts of the Americans began at once to evaluate the treasures. Rapidly it came out that these were the gold and foreign currency reserves of the Third Reich, and the stock of the museums of Berlin.

[Foto: Gold bars are taken out of transport bags]
Salt mine Kaiseroda 19, film, money bunch
                          01
Salt mine Kaiseroda 19, film, money bunch 01
Salt mine Kaiseroda 20, film, money bunch
                          02
Salt mine Kaiseroda 20, film, money bunch 02

The part of stolen cultural goods was not high in this case.

In the mines of Southern Germany and in Austria were found later many robbed pieces of art robbed by the Nazis. Some precious pieces are said to be lost until today. [Foto: bank notes in packages]

Salt mine Kaiseroda 21, film, money bag
                          of the Reichsbank
Salt mine Kaiseroda 21, film, money bag of the Reichsbank
Salt mine Kaiseroda 22, film, Ami soldier
                          is counting banknotes
Salt mine Kaiseroda 22, film, Ami soldier is counting banknotes


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28.
Bunker plant Stuttgart: Killesberg


Step by step the allied armies were invading whole Nazi Germany. On 22 April 1945 the American and French units conquered Stuttgart.

[Foto: Military vehicles in a street with trolley wire]

Stuttgart-Killesberg 01, invasion of the
                          Amis 01
Stuttgart-Killesberg 01, invasion of the Amis 01
Stuttgart-Killesberg 02, invasion of the
                          Amis 02
Stuttgart-Killesberg 02, invasion of the Amis 02

The rest of the German troop units did not defense the town any more and capitulated before the superiority.

[Foto: A German soldier sitting quiet in a tank].

Deep in the Killesberg
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[Foto: Tunnel system, inscription on the wall "Lotsenfunkstelle Kommandostab" ("pilot mobile station staff of command") with arrows]
Stuttgart-Killesberg 03, corridor 01 with
                          signpost
Stuttgart-Killesberg 03, corridor 01 with signpost
has been conserved a tunnel system which can testimony of the last fight. From this command post

[Foto: Command post, inscription on the white painted wall: "Nachrichtendienst" ("Intelligence service")]
Stuttgart-Killesberg 04, corridor 02 with a
                        counter "Nachrichtendienst"
                        ("Intelligence service")
Stuttgart-Killesberg 04, corridor 02 with a counter "Nachrichtendienst" ("Intelligence service")

as it seems the Wehrmacht leadership of Stuttgart was coordinating the last fight without sense. Intelligence advisors and radio assistants were given orders which only reached a few soldiers.

[Foto: Writings on the wall: "Befehlsraum Verbindungsführer" ("order room connection leader"), "Kommandostab Lotsendienst Nachrichtendienst" ("staff of command - pilot service - intelligence service"), red arrow]

Stuttgart-Killesberg 05, corridor 03
Stuttgart-Killesberg 05, corridor 03
Stuttgart-Killesberg 06, corridor 04
Stuttgart-Killesberg 06, corridor 04
Stuttgart-Killesberg 07, corridor 05 with
                          guideposts
Stuttgart-Killesberg 07, corridor 05 with guideposts
The halls give the impression to be untouched as if there had ended the war only yesterday.

[Foto: tunnel with concrete casing, text on the wall: "In diesem Raum muss Ruhe und Ordnung herrschen" ("In this room there has to be calm and order")].
Stuttgart-Killesberg 08, corridor 06 with
                          the counter "*Funkstelle"
                          ("radio post")
Stuttgart-Killesberg 08, corridor 06 with the counter "Funkstelle" ("radio post")
Stuttgart-Killesberg 09, corridor 07 with
                          the text on the wall: "In diesem Raum
                          muss Ruhe und Ordnung herrschen"
                          ("In this room has to be calm and
                          order")
Stuttgart-Killesberg 09, corridor 07 with the text on the wall: "In diesem Raum muss Ruhe und Ordnung herrschen" ("In this room has to be calm and order")
As it seems the safe was opened by force.

[Fotos:  a big opening with four lock devices; text on the oxidized door: "Lotsenfunkstelle. Eintritt verboten" ("Pilot mobile station. Entry forbidden")].

Stuttgart-Killesberg 10, place of the
                          safe
Stuttgart-Killesberg 10, place of the safe
Stuttgart-Killesberg 11, oxidized shield
                          "Lotsenfunkstelle. Eintritt
                          verboten" ("Pilot mobile station.
                          Entry forbidden")
Stuttgart-Killesberg 11, oxidized shield "Lotsenfunkstelle. Eintritt verboten" ("Pilot mobile station. Entry forbidden")

The rests of a gas mask lying on the floor.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
[Foto: oxidizing gas mask without glasses].
Stuttgart-Killesberg 12, rotting gas
                            mask
Stuttgart-Killesberg 12, rotting gas mask

The door to the office of the safety police is screened by shots. Was here a last gunfight with the myrmidons of the regime?

[Foto: oxidized door with holes, bullet holes and wall damages at the door behind]

Stuttgart-Killesberg 13, door
Stuttgart-Killesberg 13, door
Stuttgart-Killesberg 14, holes in the
                          door
Stuttgart-Killesberg 14, holes in the door

Somebody wanted to give his life for the leader (Fuehrer) although all was lost already?

 

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29.
Bunker system at Obersalzberg: "Berghof": almost 6 km bunker system completed

Speaker:

For a long time the allies feared that Hitler had entrenched himself with his last contingent on the Obersalzberg where the Nazi leadership was maintaining a hermetic sealed refuge since the 1930s.

[The peasants families on the Obersalzberg were step by step expropriated and deported partly against massive resistance].

[Air fotos and idyllic fotos of the region of the Obersalzberg]
Obersalzberg-Berghof01, air foto of
                          approx. 1940
Obersalzberg-Berghof01, air foto of approx. 1940


Obersalzberg-Berghof 02, houses 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 02, houses 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 03, pit
Obersalzberg-Berghof 03, pit
Obersalzberg-Berghof 04, houses 02
Obersalzberg-Berghof 04, houses 02

Also during the wars the dictator with his entourage had come to Berchtesgaden again and again, and when the leader (Fuehrer) lingered here in the heights he was guarded by hundreds of his security forces and by the SS.

[Foto: Hitler with entourage in the buildings of the Obersalzberg, guards with Hitler salute]

Obersalzberg-Berghof 05, Hitler on a
                          stairs
Obersalzberg-Berghof 05, Hitler on a stairs
Obersalzberg-Berghof 06, Hitler walking
                          up the stairs
Obersalzberg-Berghof 06, Hitler walking up the stairs
Obersalzberg-Berghof 07, government
                          building
Obersalzberg-Berghof 07, government building
Obersalzberg-Berghof 08, government
                          building, air foto
Obersalzberg-Berghof 08, government building, air foto
Obersalzberg-Berghof 09, government
                          building, portal
Obersalzberg-Berghof 09, government building, portal

Descent to the underground worlds of the Nazi hill.

[Foto: People are preparing to rope down a shaft].


A team of measuring engineers is researching and measuring there systematically the underground bunker facilities. Directly in the documentation center Obersalzberg a shaft is leading 30 m down into the hill. What precisely is down there nobody knows. The wooden stairs already collapsed decades ago.

Obersalzberg-Berghof 10, roping down a
                            shaft 01, preparation
Obersalzberg-Berghof 10, roping down a shaft 01, preparation

[Foto: The people are roping down through the shaft, the wooden stairs is only existing in parts].

Obersalzberg-Berghof 11, roping down a
                          shaft 02
Obersalzberg-Berghof 11, roping down a shaft 02
Obersalzberg-Berghof 12, roping down a
                          shaft 03
Obersalzberg-Berghof 12, roping down a shaft 03

The team and the equipment are carefully let down by a complicated safed electric roping down elevator. On the base of the shaft the experts presume the entrance to a half complete bunker facility of the SS.

[Foto: Roping down into the shaft].

Obersalzberg-Berghof 13, looking down
                            the shaft
Obersalzberg-Berghof 13, looking down the shaft
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Obersalzberg-Berghof 14, sight up the
                          shaft with the remnants of the wooden stairs
Obersalzberg-Berghof 14, sight up the shaft with the remnants of the wooden stairs

The men find 350 meter unfinished tunnel corridors. First caverns had been cased with bricks already, the cable shafts partly concreted. The drift is ending 60 m deep in the rock.

[Fotos of the tunnel in raw state, with bricked vaults, cable shafts].

Obersalzberg-Berghof 15, tunnel with
                          rubble
Obersalzberg-Berghof 15, tunnel with rubble
Obersalzberg-Berghof 16, marching on a
                          tunnel board
Obersalzberg-Berghof 16, marching on a tunnel board

Florian Beierl is one of the best experts concerning the Obersalzberg. Since his youth he is researching his history and asked many witnesses. Beierl knows that the inner of the brown hill looks like a rabbit burrow. Almost 6 km long is the tunnel and bunker system. And even bigger facilities seemed having been in project.

There was worked feverishly in a three shift system until shortly before the end of the war. The drills of the miners were regrinded around the clock to stand out the pressure of time. There were so many workers employed that one hindered the other. And who was chickening out of Sunday work so the site manager was threatening him with the safety service.


Florian Beierl, Obersalzberg expert:
"This is basically the last part of the Obersalzberg bunker systems which is not yet documented and not yet measured. It's an SS bunker which was installed in an enormous depth - widely under the existing tunnel systems - and because of this, because of the long shaft which was built down here, it was not accessible.

[Foto: Measuring works, plan with text: "SS-Bunker (unerforscht)" ("SS bunker (not researched)")].

Obersalzberg-Berghof 17, measuring of a
                          tunnel 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 17, measuring of a tunnel 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 18, measuring of a
                          tunnel 02
Obersalzberg-Berghof 18, measuring of a tunnel 02

By the digital precise measuring it's the first time that the complete picture of the whole underground Obersalzberg is drawn.

[Foto: Plan, electronically in a laptop]

Obersalzberg-Berghof 20, plan 02
Obersalzberg-Berghof 20, plan 02
Obersalzberg-Berghof 21, plan 03
Obersalzberg-Berghof 21, plan 03
Obersalzberg-Berghof 19, plan 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 19, plan 01


When one sees the last documents of the Obersalzberg administration concerning the tunnel systems, and considering the testimonies with this - eh - there comes the conclusion that this whole bunker area here was planned for about 400 men SS as a protection tunnel. At the same time in these huge halls which we have detected today, there had been possible relatively big ammunition deposits for the defense of this allegedly Alps fortification."

[Foto: Tunnels with the withdrawing engineers, the tunnel is about 4-5 m high].

Speaker:
Add to this the measuring gave the result that the bunker system of Hitler's Berghof begins in a distance of hardly 10 m. Should the SS employed to defend the leader (Fuehrer) also underground?

Florian Beierl, Obersalzberg expert:
Obersalzberg-Berghof 22, Florian Beierl is telling
Obersalzberg-Berghof 22, Florian Beierl is telling:

"All in all there were 3,000 workers busy with the tunnel works at the Obersalzberg. When one looks at this part [foto: laptop with plan], so one finds - eh - increments from raw state, this means fragile rock which is dominating here, up to the half complete final increment like it's here to see around us with the drainage bricks.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
[Foto: vault with brick casing]

With the same number of workers one had to work on here four to five months yet so the tunnel system had been usable as a complete air raid shelter.
Obersalzberg-Berghof 23, dripstone vault
Obersalzberg-Berghof 23, dripstone vault
Speaker:
Hitler's notorious secretary, Martin Bormann, was managing the construction of the underground air raid shelter facilities for the leader (Fuehrer) at the Obersalzberg.

[Foto: Hitler and Bormann on the terrace of the Obersalzberg].

Also for his big family Bormann let construct a wide bunkers which can be entered only with a special permission today.

Obersalzberg-Berghof 24, Hitler with
                          Bormann on the terrace
Obersalzberg-Berghof 24, Hitler with Bormann on the terrace

[Foto: Bormann's children]

Obersalzberg-Berghof 25, the Bormann
                        children 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 25, the Bormann children 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 26, the Bormann
                          children 02
Obersalzberg-Berghof 26, the Bormann children 02

In that times 77 steps were leading directly from the Bormann house into the underworld.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
[Foto: stairs]
Obersalzberg-Berghof 28, the stairs to the
                        Bormann bunker with 77 steps
Obersalzberg-Berghof 28, the stairs to the Bormann bunker with 77 steps
Over an almost 60 meters long corridor one reached the private rooms. As for safety against  hostile intruders there were installed bunkered machine gun stands also here.

[Foto: vaulted portal, painted in white]
Obersalzberg-Berghof 29, the 60 m long
                          corridor to the bunker rooms of Bormann
Obersalzberg-Berghof 29, the 60 m long corridor to the bunker rooms of Bormann
Florian Beierl, Obersalzberg expert:

"The whole bunker complex of the Obersalzberg was autarchik, and really absolutely autarchik, concerning the supply: There were own water deposits, there was a poison gas proof air condition, there were food deposits, and it had been possible to stay here for a longer time. The problem had been only this: It had not been possible to protect the entrances from the outside but only from the inner side to the outer side. There was no fortification outside. This means: During a siege the enemy could intrude up to the MG nests and one had been defended from there.

[Fotos: vaulted corridor labyrinth, painted in white]


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29.1.
Bunker at Obersalzberg: The Bormann family


   
Obersalzberg-Berghof 30, Florian Beierl
                          in the bunker rooms of Bormann, the room has
                          light brown colour at the low level, and the
                          switchers are in children's height
Obersalzberg-Berghof 30, Florian Beierl in the bunker rooms of Bormann, the room has light brown colour at the low level, and the switchers are in children's height

Now in this area was sheltered the Bormann family. There were three different chambers - one can say - for the children: Bunk beds were installed here. The chambers were air conditioned. The interesting is that for example here was consciously elected a warm colour,

[Foto: Room, in the low part painted in beige, in the upper part painted in white]

so this existence underground - eh - should not be in a too wasteful way. Eh - the light switchs were installed for the children consciously lower. So the level of the light switchs is almost 50 cm lower than at other places.

[Foto: deeply installed light switch hole]

There were wooden floors. One has to imagine this: Here were standing the bunk beds. And as you see: Here were even hanging pictures here. One can see the nails yet.

[Can be that there were hanging also other things like a jumping jack and so on].

And the Bormann family was here in this bunker area for weeks, of course not only down here. They were in the house and here. But the air situation, let's say, the danger at the Obersalzberg by hostile bombers increased extremely at the end of '43. So, the Bormann family has really arranged itself here."

[Fotos: Corridors, rooms, walls torn down, tiled walls with white tiles]

Obersalzberg-Berghof 31, Bormann's
                          bunker, corridors and rooms
Obersalzberg-Berghof 31, Bormann's bunker, corridors and rooms
Obersalzberg-Berghof 32, Bormann's
                          bunker, tiled corner
Obersalzberg-Berghof 32, Bormann's bunker, tiled corner

Speaker:

Bormann's safe was taken out by the Americans at the end of the war.The frame can be recognized yet.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
[Foto: White wall with grey rectangle and a brick basement before].
Obersalzberg-Berghof 33, Bormann's
                            bunker, safe's place
Obersalzberg-Berghof 33, Bormann's bunker, safe's place

There was an intelligence center with the latest facilities to get the latest radio messages and news from the fronts.

[Foto: old radio facilities, text: "Endstufe 20, Endstufe 10, Endstufe, Empfänger, ...lautspre...", ("power 20, power 10, receiver, ...loudspe..."), partly oxidized, "Netzspannung", "Netz" ("line voltage", "net")]

Obersalzberg-Berghof 34, Bormann's
                          bunker, radio station
Obersalzberg-Berghof 34, Bormann's bunker, radio station
Obersalzberg-Berghof 35, Bormann's
                          bunker, radio station, detail
Obersalzberg-Berghof 35, Bormann's bunker, radio station, detail
Obersalzberg-Berghof 36, Bormann's
                          bunker, radio station detail 02
Obersalzberg-Berghof 36, Bormann's bunker, radio station detail 02


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29.2.
Bunker at Obersalzberg: Bunker for Eva Braun


Also for Hitler himself and for his lover Eva Braun there was a underground town managed by the secretary [Bormann]. The total entourage of the dictator should be brought under the Berghof and be safe from air raids.

[Foto: meeting of Hitler and Eva Brown and others upright]

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Obersalzberg-Berghof 37, meeting
                            between Hitler and Eva Braun
Obersalzberg-Berghof 37, meeting between Hitler and Eva Braun


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29.3.
Bunker at Obersalzberg: Preparation for Hitler's last fight

In the beginning of April 1945 the stocks were brought into the bunker. Also the allied secret services believed that the dictator would be on the Obersalzberg already.

US newsreel:

"The supposed security of Berchtesgaden

[Air foto: with mountains]

Obersalzberg-Berghof 38, US film, bomber
                        squadron flying to Obersalzberg-Berghof
Obersalzberg-Berghof 38, US film, bomber squadron flying to Obersalzberg-Berghof
Obersalzberg-Berghof 39, US bomber
Obersalzberg-Berghof 39, US bomber

from where so much of the world's tragedy was planned and directed was shattered in April by forced allied heavy bombers. Arriving at day break they attacked Hitler's notorious mountain hideout and the chalet in the valley below with 12,000 pound bombs fused for deep penetration.

[Foto: launch of bombs]
Obersalzberg-Berghof 40, US film, bombs
                            on houses of the Obersalzberg-Berghof
Obersalzberg-Berghof 40, US film, bombs on houses of the  Obersalzberg-Berghof
The SS barracks nearby also received accurate attention."

[Air foto: Barracks in a rectangle order; fotos of explosions, accentuated with string music]

Obersalzberg-Berghof 41, US film,
                          explosion
Obersalzberg-Berghof 41, US film, explosion
Obersalzberg-Berghof 42, US film, SS
                          barracks bombed
Obersalzberg-Berghof 42, US film, SS barracks bombed

Speaker:

The bombs destroyed most of the buildings. The Berghof was uninhabitable. The sad rest of Hitler's royal household survived in the bunkers. Then the Americans
came .


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Obersalzberg-Berghof 43, US film, bombed
                          houses
Obersalzberg-Berghof 43, US film, bombed houses

US commander Omar Bradley going sightseeing on the Obersalzberg.

[Foto: Omar Bradley comes with two assists in lockstep]

Obersalzberg-Berghof 44, US film, Ami
                        invasion 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 44, US film, Ami invasion 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 45, US film, Ami
                        invasion 02, Omar Bradley 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 45, US film, Ami invasion 02, Omar Bradley 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 46, US film, Ami
                          invasion 03, Omar Bradley 02
Obersalzberg-Berghof 46, US film, Ami invasion 03, Omar Bradley 02

The destroyed Berghof became an attraction for the winners.

[Fotos: White shield fixed on beams, text: "HITLER'S HOME"; soldiers enjoying the view and a guard keeping watch].

Obersalzberg-Berghof 47, US film, Ami
                          invasion 04, shield "Hitler's Home"
Obersalzberg-Berghof 47, US film, Ami invasion 04, shield "Hitler's Home"
Obersalzberg-Berghof 48, US film, Ami
                          invasion 05, Omar Bradley enjoying the view
Obersalzberg-Berghof 48, US film, Ami invasion 05, Omar Bradley enjoying the view
Obersalzberg-Berghof 49, US film, Ami
                          invasion 06, a soldier is keeping watch
Obersalzberg-Berghof 49, US film, Ami invasion 06, a soldier is keeping watch

Also the mysterious bunker facility are a part of the sightseeing program of the soldiers. Curiously a GI of the US army is entering the leader's bunker for the camera.

[Foto: Soldier in a vaulted corridor]

Obersalzberg-Berghof 50, US film, Ami
                        bunker sightseeing 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 50, US film, Ami bunker sightseeing 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 51, US film, Ami
                        bunker sightseeing 02
Obersalzberg-Berghof 51, US film, Ami bunker sightseeing 02

On 1800 m2 Hitler and his last entourage had been able to endure here for weeks.

[Fotos: rooms without windows, painted in white, with wooden door frames].

Obersalzberg-Berghof 52, bunker entrance
                          with a red arrow 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 52, bunker entrance with a red arrow 01
Obersalzberg-Berghof 53, bunker entrance
                          with a red arrow 02
Obersalzberg-Berghof 53, bunker entrance with a red arrow 02

Florian Beierl, Obersalzberg expert:
Obersalzberg-Berghof 54, bunker entrance, Florian
              Beierl is telling
Obersalzberg-Berghof 54, bunker entrance, Florian Beierl is telling:
"On the Obersalzberg one counted on the coming of Hitler up to the last day. One was prepared, the bunkers were all arranged, and - eh - there was even coming the advance guard of the Chancellery of the Reich from Berlin. And one can maintain for sure: When Hitler had come here this had extended the war yet for some time. From here it had been possible - considering the logistics - to steer and to lead the heap of rubble which remained at that time."
Obersalzberg-Berghof 55, bunker room in
                            ruins
Obersalzberg-Berghof 55, bunker room in ruins
When on 1 May 1945 the radio announced Hitler's death above all security agents were plundering the staying remnants of their boss. Later it were the local civilians of Berchtesgaden who could serve themselves of the heaps of stocks with the permission of the Americans.

[Foto: As soldier is marching through the corridors and passing a book shelf].

Hitler's private archive had been burnt from one of his adjutants in time yet. The staying library in the bunker, the discs and the paintings, they were confiscated by the Americans.

[Coloured fotos: Vaults without windows, painted in white, wooden floor, little stone heaps and pieces of wood on the floor; old pictures in black and white: many paintings in the deposit with GI; the same GI in another room with a disc].

Obersalzberg-Berghof 56, US film, picture
                        collection
Obersalzberg-Berghof 56, US film, picture collection
Obersalzberg-Berghof 57, US film, an Ami
                        soldier takes a file from a shelf
Obersalzberg-Berghof 57, US film, an Ami soldier takes a file from a shelf
Obersalzberg-Berghof 58, US film, an Ami
                        soldier has a record in his hands
Obersalzberg-Berghof 58, US film, an Ami soldier has a record in his hands

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29.4.
Bunker at Obersalzberg: Eva Braun's rooms

Also in Eva Braun's sleeping room there had been unauthorized people and making wild parties at the end of the war.

[Foto: Room with furniture in pieces, GI]
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Obersalzberg-Berghof 59, US film, the Ami
                          soldier is entering the bunker room of the
                          leader's bunker (Fuehrerbunker)
Obersalzberg-Berghof 59, US film, the Ami soldier is entering the bunker room of the leader's bunker (Fuehrerbunker)

In April 1945 the caverns were ready for occupancy, filled with the considerable wardrobe and with porcelain.

[Foto: Room with floor lamp on the floor, books on the floor, GI, champagne bottle and champagne glass on a chest of drawers, the GI is "testing" the double bed, wardrobe and porcelain are not shown].

Obersalzberg-Berghof 60, US film, the Ami
                        soldier is examining a champagne bottle
Obersalzberg-Berghof 60, US film, the Ami soldier is examining a champagne bottle
Obersalzberg-Berghof 61, US film, bathroom
                        of Eva Braun
Obersalzberg-Berghof 61, US film, bathroom of Eva Braun
Obersalzberg-Berghof 62, US film, the Ami
                        soldier is testing Eva's bed
Obersalzberg-Berghof 62, US film, the Ami soldier is testing Eva's bed

By special request of the leader's lover there was installed an own bathroom with a bath tub.

[Foto: GI entering the bath room, bath tub is not shown].
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Obersalzberg-Berghof 63, US film, the bath
                        room of Eva Brown in the leader's bunker
                        (Fuehrerbunker)
Obersalzberg-Berghof 63, US film, the bath room of Eva Brown in the leader's bunker (Fuehrerbunker)
Today there cannot be seen much any more.

[Foto: Vault, painted in white, beautiful tiles in the lower part]



Obersalzberg-Berghof 64, bath room of Eva
                          Braun, tiled wall
Obersalzberg-Berghof 64, bath room of Eva Braun, tiled wall

The rooms are like swept. But despite of this again and again criminal treasure hunters are breaking into the facility to search the mysterious labyrinth.

Right aside Eva Braun's cavern was the one of the leader (Fuehrer). It's said to be arranged spartanic. The furniture was removed by the Americans. The rest was falling into the tourists hands. Even the tiles of the bathroom [of Eva Braun's bathroom] were taken as doubtable souvenirs.

[Foto: vaulted room without tiles].

Hitler himself had been here only one single time. He decided himself for the downfall in Berlin.

Obersalzberg-Berghof 65, vaulted room
                            without tiles
Obersalzberg-Berghof 65, vaulted room without tiles



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